The right to translation and interpreting into and from Albanian as a reflection of fundamental civil rights in Kosovo between 1912 and 1999

Authors

  • Arben Shala Charles University, Czech Republic

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4312/stridon.1.1.33-55

Keywords:

linguistic equality, education, translation, constitution, criminal procedure code

Abstract

Through the analysis of official legal documentation, this paper presents a historical overview of the development of laws and practices regarding language policies in Socialist Yugoslavia, and the use of the Albanian language in education and in the security sector in Kosovo with special emphasis on translation and interpreting. The results of the analysis show that in the 1970s socialist Yugoslav laws governing the equality of languages in a multilingual state, as codified in the constitution and other administrative and legal documents, were quite progressive on paper but did not entirely translate into political and linguistic equality in practice, but that they, nevertheless, resulted in the increased trust in the formal Kosovo governing institutions; and that the abolishment of translation and linguistic rights accompanied by the abandonment of other fundamental civil rights at the end of the 20th century eventually strengthened the ethnic tensions and divisions in the region. The article concludes that translation and interpreting represent key activities supporting the implementation of linguistic rights and trust in the legal system, and that linguistic rights are effective only if they are supported with other fundamental civil rights, such as the right to education and political participation.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Accetto, Matej. 2007. “On Law and Politics in the Federal Balance: Lessons from Yugoslavia.” Review of Central and East European Law 32: 191–231. https://doi.org/10.1163/092598807X165622.

Bajrami, Hakif. 2018. Shqiptarët në luftë për shtet kombëtar (1912-1918). Prishtinë: Faik Konica.

Bellamy, Alex J. 2002. Kosovo and International Society. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Benson, Leslie. 2004. Yugoslavia: A Concise History. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Berisha, Rrustem, Sadri Fetiu, and Jahir Ahmeti. 1997. Rizah Bllaca, Këngë popullore 3. Prishtinë: Instituti Albanologjik i Prishtinës.

Bylykbashi, Zija. 1977. “Komisioni Ndërkombetar i Kontrollit (KNK) dhe veprimtaria e tij (1913-1914).” Gjurmime albanologjike: Seria e shkencave historike 7: 281–304.

Ceylan, Ebubekir. 2002. “The Millet System in the Ottoman Empire.” In The Millennium Perspectives in the Humanities, edited by Judi Upton-Ward, 245–66. Utah: Global Humanities Press.

CIA (Central Intelligence Agency). 1953. Albanian Minority in Yugoslavia. Report 50X1-HUM. CIA https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP82-00457R014500140002-8.pdf. Accessed July 4, 2020.

Codice di Procedura Penale. 1930. Accessed April 5, 2020. https://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/1930/10/26/030U1399/sg.

DCAF, (Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces). 2015. The Security Sector: Roles and Responsibilities in Security Provision, Management and Oversight. Accessed April 2, 2020. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/195675/DCAF_BG_3_The%20Security%20Sector.11.15.pdf.

Đokić, Bojan. 2019. “Srpska javnost o međunacionalnim odnosima u Socijalističkoj Autonomnoj Pokrajini Kosovo 1981-1989.” PhD diss., University of Novi Sad.

Durham, Mary E. 1909. High Albania. London: Edward Arnold.

Elsie, Robert. 2010. Historical Dictionary of Albania. Lanham (Maryland): The Scarecrow Press.

Fetahu, Adil. 2011. Krijimi dhe rrënimi i gjyqësorit të Kosovës. Prishtinë: Lidhja e Juristëve të Kosovës.

Fischer, Bernd J. 1999. Albania at War, 1939-1945. London: C. Hurst & Co.

Greenberg, Robert D. 2004. Language and Identity in the Balkans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Guzina, Dejan. 2003. “Kosovo or Kosova - Could It Be Both?: The Case of Interlocking Serbian and Albanian Nationalisms.” In Understanding the War in Kosovo, edited by Florian Bieber and Židas Daskalovski, 31–52. London: Routledge.

HRW (Human Rights Watch). 2001. Under Orders: War Crimes in Kosovo Part 2. New York: Human Rights Watch.

Hyseni, Halim, Bajram Shatri, Jonuz Salihaj, and Dukagjin Pupovci. 2000. Shifra e fakte për arsimin në Kosovë, Prishtinë: QAK.

IOM (International Organization for Migration). 2018. Communication among Members of Serbian and Albanian Communities in Kosovo - The Issue of Languages. Accessed April 10, 2020. https://www.kosovo.iom.int/issue-languages-communication-among-members-serbian-and-albanian-communities-kosovo-public-opinion.

Islami, Hivzi. 1990. Kosova dhe Shqiptarët: çështje demografike. Rilindja: Prishtinë.

Judah, Tim. 2000. The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Judah, Tim. 2008. Kosovo: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kostovicova, Denisa. 2002. “Shkolla shqipe’ and Nationhood: Albanians in Pursuit of Education in the Native Language in Interwar (1918-41) and Post-Autonomy (1989-98) Kosovo.” In Albanian Identities: Myth and History, edited by Stephanie Schwandner-Sievers and Bernd Jürgen Fischer, 157–71. London, UK: Hurst & Co.

Kostovicova, Denisa. 2005. Kosovo: The Politics of Identity and Space. London: Routledge.

Krivični zakon SAP Kosova 1977. Official Gazette of the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo: 20/77-547.

Krivični zakon SFRJ. 1976. Official Gazette of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: 44/76-1329.

Krivični zakon SR Srbije. 1977. Official Gazette of the Socialist Republic of Serbia: 26/77-1341.

Krivični zakon. 1959. Official Gazette of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia: 30/59-817.

Krivični zakonik. 1951. Official Gazette of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia: 13/51-185.

Ligja Kushtetuese të Krahines Socialiste Autonome të Kosovës. 1969. Official Gazette of the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo.

Ligji për realizimin e barazisë së gjuhëve dhe shkrimeve. 1977. Official Gazette of the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo: 48/77-1335.

Malcolm, Noel. 2011. Kosova, një histori e shkurtër [Kosovo: A Short History]. Translated by Avdullah Karjagdiu and Pirro Misha. Prishtinë: Koha.

Malešević-Didarja, Miroslava. 2016. The Life Story of a Woman from Prizren. Translated by Shkelzen Maliqi. Accessed April 18, 2020. https://oralhistorykosovo.org/didara-the-life-story-of-a-woman-from-prizren/.

Martinović, Sreten. 1977. “Qëndrimi i ushtrise serbe ndaj shqiptareve në viset e pushtuara në vitet 1912-1913 [Le comportement de l’armee Serbe envers les Albanais dans les regions ocupees 1912-1913].” Gjurmime albanologjike: Seria e shkencave historike 7: 247–80.

Milošević, Slobodan. 1987. Speech of Slobodan Milosevic at Kosovo Polje. Accessed June 4, 2020. http://www.slobodan-milosevic.org/news/milosevic-1987-3-eng.htm.

Milošević, Slobodan. 1989. Govor Slobodana Miloševića na Gazimestanu 1989. godine. Accessed June 4, 2020. http://www.pecat.co.rs/2011/06/govor-slobodana-milosevica-na-gazimestanu-1989-godine/.

Munishi, Shkumbin. 2009. “Barazia e gjuhëve në Kosovë dhe perspektiva evropiane.” Uluslararası Balkanlarda tarih ve kültür kongresi 10-16 Mayıs ‘09 Kosova - Priştine: bildiriler kitabı 1: 989–1012. Sakarya: Sakarya Universitesi.

Novosella, Selatin. 2019. Viti 1968, vit i kthesës së madhe historike. Accessed June 10, 2020. https://www.epokaere.com/viti-1968-vit-i-ktheses-se-madhe-historike/.

OAK (Oda e Avokatëve të Kosovës). 2016. Misioni & Historiku. Accessed June 10, 2020. http://www.oak-ks.org/sq/rreth-nesh.

OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe) and ODHIR (Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights). 1999. Kosova/Kosovo: As Seen, as Told. Warsaw: OSCE.

Petrick, Daniel. 2020. Rikthim në Kosovë: Serbët që u rikthyen në qytetin e tyre të lindjes. Accessed May 10, 2020.https://balkaninsight.com/2020/01/14/rikthim-ne-kosove-serbet-qe-u-rikthyen-ne-qytetin-e-tyre-te-lindjes/?lang=sq.

Praviljnik o polaganju ispita za stalne sudske tumače. 1970. Official Gazette of the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo: 07/70-248.

Pupavac, Vanessa. 2012. Language Rights: From Free Speech to Linguistic Governance. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Qeriqi, Ahmet. 2020. A ishte Kryeçetniku, Kosta Peçanac, me origjinë shqiptar ortodoks, nga radha e laramanëve fetarë? II. Accessed May 15, 2020. https://www.radiokosovaelire.com/a-q-a-ishte-kryecetniku-kosta-pecanac-me-origjine-shqiptar-ortodoks-nga-radha-e-laramaneve-fetare-ii/

Rizaj, Skender. 1991. Shqiptarët dhe Serbët në Kosovë [Albanians and Serbs in Kosova]. Prishtinë: Zëri i Rinisë.

Ryan, Barry J. 2010. “Policing the State of Exception in Kosovo.” In Kosovo, Intervention and Statebuilding, edited by Aidan O‘Hehir, 114–31. London: Routledge.

Salihu, Ismet, Hilmi Zhitija, and Fejzullah Hasani. 2014. Komentari i Kodit Penal të Republikës së Kosovës. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH.

Salla, Michael. 1995. “Kosovo, Non-violence and the Break-up of Yugoslavia.” Security Dialogue 264: 427–38. https://doi.org/10.1177/0967010695026004008.

Schmitt, Oliver J. 2012. Kosova: Histori e shkurtër e një̈ treve qendrore ballkanike. [Kosovo. Kurze Geschichte einer zentralbalkanischen Landschaft]. Translated by Enver Robelli Prishtinë: Koha.

Shala, Arben. 2019. “Translating Culture: Mediating Customary Law Related Language.” Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Philologica 4, Translatologica Pragensia 93–106. https://doi.org/10.14712/24646830.2020.8.

Shita, Vehap. 2013. Interview with Vehap Shita. Accessed March 1, 2021. https://oralhistorykosovo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Vehap_Shita_eng.docx.pdf.

Statut Advokatske Komore Kosova. 1978. Official Gazette of the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo: 23/78-645.

Tollefson, James W. 1980. “Language Policy and National Stability in Yugoslavia.” Canadian Slavonic Papers / Revue Canadienne Des Slavistes 22 (4): 506–17.

Treaty of Peace between the Principal Allied and Associated Powers and Austria (Signed At St. Germain-En-Laye).1919. Accessed March 15, 2020. https://jusmundi.com/en/document/treaty/en-treaty-of-saint-germain-1919-treaty-of-saint-germain-1919-wednesday-10th-september-1919.

Uredba o stalnim sudskim tumačima.1969. Official Gazette of the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo: 38/69-1305.

Ustav Federativne Narodne Republike Jugoslavije. 1946. Official Gazette of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia: 10/46-73.

Ustav Kraljevine Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca. 1921. Accessed April 1, 2020. http://www.arhivyu.gov.rs/active/sr-latin/home/glavna_navigacija/leksikon_jugoslavije/konstitutivni_akti_jugoslavije/vidovdanski_ustav.html.

Ustav Narodne Republike Srbije. 1947. Official Gazette of the People’s Republic of Serbia: 03/47-13.

Ustav Republike Srbije. 1990. Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia: 01/90-1.

Ustav SAP Kosova. 1974. Official Gazette of the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo 04/74-75.

Ustav Socijalističke Federativne Republike Jugoslavije. 1963. Official Gazette of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: 14/63-201.

Ustav Socijalističke Federativne Republike Jugoslavije. 1974. Official Gazette of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: 09/74-209.

Ustavni zakon o osnovama društvenog i političkog uređenja Federativne Narodne Republike Jugoslavije i saveznim organima vlasti.1953. Official Gazette of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia: 03/53-21.

Ustavni zakon o osnovama društvenog i političkog uređenja i o organima vlasti Narodne Republike Srbije. 1953. Official Gazette of the PR of Serbia: 05/53-57.

Ustavni zakon za provođenje ustavnih amandmana 8 i 16.1968. Official Gazette the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: 55/68-1293.

Vickers, Miranda. 1998. Between Serb and Albanian: A History of Kosovo. London: Hurst & Co.

Weller, Marc. 2011. Shtetësia e kontestuar: administrimi ndërkombëtar i luftës së Kosovës për pavarësi [Contested statehood: Kosovo’s struggle for independence]. Translated by Flaka Surroi. Prishtinë: Koha.

Zakon o advokaturi i drugoj pravnoj pomoci. 1973. Official Gazette of the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo: 43/73-1253.

Zakon o izmenima i dopune krivičnog zakona SR Srbije. 1986. Official Gazette of the Socialist Republic of Serbia: 39/86-2739.

Zakon o krivični delima protiv naroda i države. 1945. Official Gazette of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia: 66/45-645.

Zakon o krivičnom postupku 1977. Official Gazette of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: 04/77-145.

Zakon o krivičnom postupku. 1986. Official Gazette of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: 26/86-789.

Zakon o načinu ostvarivanja prava pripadnika narodnosti na upotrebu svog jezika i pisma kod republičkih organa.1971. Official Gazette of the Socialist Republic of Serbia: 14/71-343.

Zakon o službenoj upotrebi jezika i pisama. 1991. Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia: 45/91-1802.

Downloads

Published

30.06.2021 — Updated on 07.07.2021

Versions

How to Cite

Shala, A. (2021). The right to translation and interpreting into and from Albanian as a reflection of fundamental civil rights in Kosovo between 1912 and 1999. STRIDON: Studies in Translation and Interpreting, 1(1), 33–55. https://doi.org/10.4312/stridon.1.1.33-55 (Original work published June 30, 2021)

Issue

Section

ARTICLES