State-of-the-art on monolingual lexicography for Norway (Bokmål and Nynorsk)

  • Oddrun Grønvik University of Oslo, Faculty of Humanities
  • Sturla Berg-Olsen The Language Council of Norway
  • Marit Hovdenak The Language Council of Norway
  • Knut E. Karlsen The Language Council of Norway
Keywords: Norwegian, Scandinavian languages, Linguistic infrastructure

Abstract

Monolingual lexicography for Norwegian started some decades after political independence from Denmark in 1814. Since 1885 two written standards have been recognized, one based on Danish as spoken in Norway (today Bokmål), and one based on the Norwegian vernacular (Nynorsk). Both are fully described in major scholarly dictionaries, now completed and freely available on the web. Both receive some public funding, with a view to further development. Because of frequent orthographic revisions, at first aimed at bringing the written standards closer to each other, spellers dominated the market through most of the 20th century. Today linguistic stability is aimed for, incorporating only such changes in the written standards as are supported by general usage. The first general monolingual defining dictionaries Bokmålsordboka and Nynorskordboka, covering the central vocabulary of each written standard, were first published as parallel volumes in 1986, and are now undergoing revision at the University of Bergen in cooperation with the Language Council of Norway. These dictionaries are now stored in databases, are available on the web and as a free smartphone app. Public funding of monolingual mother tongue lexicography is seen as an investment in essential linguistic infrastructure, as is bilingual lexicography between the Nordic languages and Norwegian, while other bilingual lexicography is dealt with by private publishers.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Dictionaries:

Aasen, I. (1873). Norsk Ordbog med Dansk Forklaring. Christiania: Mallings Boghandel. Retrieved from http://www.edd.uio.no/aasen/aasen1873.html

Bokmålsordlista. (1992). Boye Wangensteeen. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

CD-ord. Retrieved from https://www.mv-nordic.com/no/produkter/cd-ord

Clarify. Retrieved from https://www.clarifylanguage.com/welcome/#/

Clue. Retrieved from https://clue.no/

Det Norske Akademis ordbok (NAOB). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved from http://www.naob.no/

Guttu, T. (2005). Norsk Ordbok med 1000 illustrasjoner (2nd ed.). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget.

Hovdenak, M. et al. (1986; 4th paper ed. 2006). Nynorskordboka. Definisjons- og rettskrivingsordbok. Oslo: Det Norske Samlaget. New web edition 2012. Retrieved from http://ordbok.uib.no

Islex. Retrieved from http://islex.is/

Landfald, Aagot (2006). Norsk Ordbok (4th ed.). Oslo: Cappelen.

Landrø, M. I. & Wangensteen, B. (1986; 3rd paper ed. 2005). Bokmålsordboka: definisjons- og rettskrivningsordbok. Oslo/Bergen: Universitetsforlaget. New web edition 2013. Retrieved from http://ordbok.uib.no/

LEXIN. Stofnun Árna Magnússonar í íslenskum fræðum. Retrieved from http://lexin.udir.no/

Lingit. Retrieved from https://lingit.no/

NAOB. See Det Norske Akademis ordbok.

NO. See Norsk Ordbok.

Nordisk miniordbok. Netværket for Sprognævnene i Norden. Retrieved from http://miniordbog.org/

Norsk Ordbok. Ordbok over det norske folkemålet og det nynorske skriftmålet. (NO) (1966–2015): Vols. I–XII. Oslo: Det Norske Samlaget. Retrieved from http://no2014.uib.no

Norsk riksmålsordbok. (NRO) (1937–1957): Alf Sommerfelt and Trygve Knudsen (vols. I–IV); Harald Noreng (1957–1995) (vols. V–VI). Oslo: Aschehougs forlag.

NRO. See Norsk riksmålsordbok.

Nynorskordlista. (1996). Marit Hovdenak. Oslo: Det Norske Samlaget.

Nynorsk ordliste. (2012). Alf Hellevik, Margunn Rauset and Aud Søyland. 12th ed. Oslo: Det Norske Samlaget.

The Word bank (Ordbanken). Språkbanken, Nasjonalbiblioteket. https://www.nb.no/sprakbanken/show?serial=oai%3Anb. no%3Asbr-5〈=en

ordbok.uib.no. See Landrø et al. And Hovdenak et al.

Ordbøkene (2017-) free smartphone app for Landrø et al. and Hovdenak et al. available from Google Play and App Store.

Ordnett. Subscription service for 50 digital dictionaries covering 10 languages. Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved from https://www.ordnett.no/

Talemålet I Valle og Hylestad (2013-). Retrieved from http://www.vallemal.no/

Tanums store rettskrivningsordbok. (2015). Boye Wangensteen. 10th ed. Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget.

Other:

Grønvik, O. (2017). The Saga of Norsk Ordbok: A scholarly dictionary for the Norwegian vernacular and the Nynorsk written language. Kernerman Dictionary News, 25, 19–24.

Grønvik, O. & Ore, C.-E.S. (2018). Comparing Orthographies in Space and Time through Lexicographic Resources, In J. Čibej, V. Gorjanc, I. Kosem & S. Krek (Eds.), Proceedings of the XVIII EURALEX International Congress: Lexicography in Global Contexts (pp. 159–172). Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete.

Gundersen, D. (1967). Fra Wergeland til Vogt-komiteen: et utvalg av hovedtrekk og detaljer fra norsk språknormering. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

HaBiT Norwegian Web Corpus (2015). Retrieved from http://www.hf.uio.no/iln/english/about/organization/text-laboratory/projects/habit/habitcorpus.html

Ims, I. I. (2015). “Du kjenner vel BOB og NOB?” Språknytt, 2015(1),12–13. Retrieved from http://www.sprakradet.no/Vi-og-vart/Publikasjoner/Spraaknytt/spraknytt-2015/spraknytt-12015/du-kjenner-vel-bob-og-nob/

Karlsen, K. E., & Rødningen, D. (2008). “Ordboksbruk i skolen – praksis og perspektiv. Utnytting av einspråklege ordbøker i norskfaget i den vidaregåande skolen”. LexicoNordica, 15, 93–114.

Medienorge (2017). “Andel med tilgang til internett”. Retrieved from http://www.medienorge.uib.no/statistikk/medium/ikt/347

Nynorskkorpuset. University of Bergen. Retrieved from http://no2014.uib.no/korpuset/conc_enkeltsok.htm

SSB (2017). Statistisk sentralbyrå [Statistics Norway]: Norsk mediebarometer. Updated 20 April 2017. Retrieved from https://www.ssb.no/kultur-og-fritid/statistikker/medie/aar

Telenor (2017). “Dynamic map of internet coverage in Norway”. Retrieved from https://www.telenor.no/privat/dekning/#map

The Language Collections (2016). Available at https://www.uib.no/ub/101277/spr%C3%A5kinfrastruktur-norsk-spr%C3%A5k-og-norske-namn

The Language Council (2015). “Digitale ordbøker i bruk”. Retrieved from http://www.sprakradet.no/globalassets/spraka-vare/rapporter/rapport---digitale-ordboker-i-bruk.pdf

The Language Council (2017). “Ordlister til skulebruk”. Retrieved from http://www.sprakradet.no/sprakhjelp/Skriverad/Ordlister/Ordlister-til-skulebruk/

Udir (2013). Undervisningsdirektoratet: “Læreplan i norsk (NOR1-05). Kompetansemål etter 7. årstrinn”. Retrieved from https://www.udir.no/kl06/NOR1-05/Hele/Kompetansemaal/kompetansemal-etter-7.-arstrinn

Vikør, L. S. (1995). The Nordic languages. Their status and interrelations. Oslo: Novus.

Published
2019-04-18
How to Cite
Grønvik, O., Berg-Olsen, S., Hovdenak, M., & Karlsen, K. (2019). State-of-the-art on monolingual lexicography for Norway (Bokmål and Nynorsk). Slovenščina 2.0: Empirical, Applied and Interdisciplinary Research, 7(1), 39-52. https://doi.org/10.4312/slo2.0.2019.1.39-52
Section
Minireviews