Turkisms in the toponymy of Ukraine: historical and etymological aspacts
The centuries-old contact of Turkic tribes with the native population of Ukraine is broadly reflected in Ukrainian toponymy where Turkisms are one of the largest groups among foreign place names. They embedded into the native speech during three main periods: 1) the Kievan Rus (Ancient Ukrainian) period – 9–13th century (ravine and river Yeriel; < Turkic airily/airyly ‘divided’, Old Russian calque Оуголъ < уголъ ‘angle; land wedge between converging rivers’); 2) the Old Ukrainian period – 14–18th century (territory of Budzhak < Turkic budzhak ‘angle’); 3) the New Ukrainian (Modern) period – 19–21st century (city of Dzhankoy < Turkic dzhan ‘new’ and koy ‘village, settlement’). The etymology of Turkic toponyms reflects the following: inherent properties of geographical elements (river Adzhyholʹ < adzhy ‘sour, ferment’ and hol/holʹ ‘lake, water body’); relations of the elements denoted to other (mainly adjacent) surrounding elements (city of Kiliya < kil ‘sort of bleaching clays’ + suffix -li/-liy in relative function); relation to people (city of Izmail < male name Ismail as former attributive in the Ezafe construction). Derivatives of each of these toponymic principles may be used to express cultural and historical values or religious aspects (the river Beshka < Turkic bes/beş ‘five’, sacred meaning ‘god given plurality’ and kaja ’rock’) that may permeate Ukrainian contact speech (compare the name of the town Pyatykhatky that came into use under the Turkic cultural influence). In the last (Modern) period, the Turkic influence on the geographical names remained mainly in Slavicized Crimea where the toponyms were for the most part of Crimean Tatar origin. However, in the Soviet time the majority of foreign names (principally oikonyms and urbanonyms), including Turkic ones, on the peninsula as well as in the whole of the Ukraine were deliberately changed.
Copyright (c) 2016 Василь B. Лучик
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors are confirming that they are the authors of the submitting article, which will be published (print and online) in journal Linguistica by Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, Aškerčeva 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia). Author’s name will be evident in the article in journal. All decisions regarding layout and distribution of the work are in hands of the publisher.
- Authors guarantee that the work is their own original creation and does not infringe any statutory or common-law copyright or any proprietary right of any third party. In case of claims by third parties, authors commit their self to defend the interests of the publisher, and shall cover any potential costs.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.