Definiteness strategies and word order in existential-locatives and locatives in Late and Vulgar Latin
§ 1.The parameters which began to undergo a profound change in Late Latin include the marking of definiteness and the gradual fixation of a different word order.1 These two phenomena are brought into connection by M.. Durante's observation (1981, 62) that article development2 is one of the main agents involved3 in the emergence of a fixed order of constituents.
§ 2. The two parameters are still subject to investigation. The discussion of definite ness markers focuses on how and when precisely the article appeared, but it has yielded contradictory conclusions: while some scholars acknowledge the existence of articles in Late and Vulgar Latin texts, such as Egeria's Peregrinatio,4 others deny it.5 Inaddition, there are some less extreme views arguing for an intermediate stage in the long evolution from demonstratives to articles in Late Latin texts.6
The research on word order, especially in Late Latin, frequently focuses on the posi tion of the elements considered basic in the language;7 thus, generally speaking, almost everyone is agreed on the SOV > SV08 change, although an alternation of the two orders can be established for the Classical as well as for the Late period ([S]OV/[S]V0).9
§ 3. With regard to Late and Vulgar Latin, however, there are only a few specialised papers dealing with potential historical changes in the position of the verbs which present special difficulties in the language, not only with their complex semantic content but also with their ability to form multiple constructions. 10 This is the case with the verb sum in structures expressing a semantic notion of location. The relationship between word order and definiteness in these structures has been examined by scholars attempting
ing to explain the difference between the so-called 'locative' constructions (Loe) and 'existential-locatives' (ExL), 11 both containing the verb sum: while the former typically front the location-encoding term (p)with a definite subject, the latter display the opposite distinctive features (a S[-Def]12 appearing in the pS sequence).13
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors are confirming that they are the authors of the submitting article, which will be published (print and online) in journal Linguistica by Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, Aškerčeva 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia). Author’s name will be evident in the article in journal. All decisions regarding layout and distribution of the work are in hands of the publisher.
- Authors guarantee that the work is their own original creation and does not infringe any statutory or common-law copyright or any proprietary right of any third party. In case of claims by third parties, authors commit their self to defend the interests of the publisher, and shall cover any potential costs.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.