A Fully Integrated Approach to Blended Language Learning

  • Polona Vičič University of Maribor
Keywords: blended language learning, continuity, fully integrated approach, three-modal approach

Abstract

In the face of increasing demand for greater continuity and flexibility in language learning, online learning has gradually established itself as an important complement to face-to-face (F2F) language instruction. Typically, the resulting blend focuses on the two central learning modes, i.e., F2F and online; however, it leaves out the self-study component based on sources that do not form an integral part of the online component. Recognising the importance of the latter, Whittaker (2014) defines blended language learning as a blend of F2F, online, and self-study components.

Drawing on this three-modal approach, the present paper first outlines two language courses designed and delivered by the author of the paper. Next, it analyses students’ feedback on their experience with blended learning collected via an end-of-course questionnaire including multiple-choice statements, five-point Likert scale statements, and open-ended questions. The sample included fifty-two students, most of whom reported a positive experience, especially with the F2F component.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Albert, Leslie Jordan, and Camille S. Johnson. 2011. “Socioeconomic Status- and Gender-Based Differences in Students’ Perceptions of E-Learning Systems.” Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education 9 (3): 42–436. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4609.2011.00320.x.

Al-Mahrooqi, Rahma, and Salah Troudi. 2014. “Introduction.” In Using Technology in Foreign Language Teaching, edited by Rahma Al-Mahrooqi and Salah Troudi, 1–7. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Anderson, Terry, and Jon Dron. 2012. “Learning Technology through Three Generations of Technology Enhanced Distance Education Pedagogy.” European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning 2: 1–14. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ992485.

Benta, Dan, Gabriela Bologa, Simona Dzitac, and Ioan Dzitac. 2015. “University Level Learning and Teaching via E-Learning Platforms.” Procedia Computer Science 55: 1366–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2015.07.123.

Bielawski, Larry, and David Metcalf. 2005. Blended eLearning: Integrating Knowledge, Performance Support, and Online Learning. Massachusetts: HRD Press.

Blake, Robert J. 2008. Brave New Digital Classroom: Technology and Foreign Language Learning. Washington, D. C.: Georgetown University Press.

Brown, Ruth. 2001. “The Process of Community Building in Distance Learning Classes.” Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 5 (2): 18–35.

Chowdhry, Sandeep, Karolina Sieler, and Lourdes Alwis. 2014. “A Study of the Impact of Technology-Enhanced Learning on Student Academic Performance.” Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice 2 (3): 1–15. hzttps://www.napier.ac.uk/~/media/worktribe/output-175414/vlejpaappdf.pdf

Dewar, Tammy, and Dave Whittington. 2004. Blended Learning Research Report. Canada: Calliope Learning.

Dodun, Oana, Ema Panaite, Nicolae Seghedin, Gheorghe Nagîţ, Petru Duşa, Gabriela Neştian, and Laurenţiu Slătineanu. 2015. “Analysis of an e-Learning Platform Use by Means of the Axiomatic Design.” Procedia CIRP 34: 244–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2015.07.059.

Ellis, Joanne, Marleigh Greaney, and Judy Macdonald. 2007. The Effectiveness of Blended Course Instruction in Second Language Learning. Quebec, Canada: Cégep Vanier College.

Fleet, Liz. 2013. “A Blended Learning Approach to Soft Skill Training at Al Azhar University, Cairo.” In Blended learning in English Language Teaching: Course Design and Implementation, edited by Brian Tomlinson and Claire Whittaker, 201–5. UK: British Council.

Garret, Nina. 2009. “Computer-Assisted Language Learning Trends and Issues Revisited: Integrating Innovation.” The Modern Language Journal 93: 719–40. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00969.x.

Graham, Charles R., and Charles Dziuban. 2007. “Blended Learning Environments.” In Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology: A Project of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, edited by J. Michael Spector, M. David Merrill, Jeroen van Merriënboer and Marcy P. Driscoll, 269–76. New York: Routledge.

Grgurović, Maja. 2017. “Blended Language Learning: Research and Practice.” In The Handbook of Technology and Second Language Teaching and Learning, edited by Carol A. Chapelle and Shanon Sauro, 149–68. Malaysia: John Wiley & Sons.

Hinkelman, Don. 2018. Blending Technologies in Second Language Classroom, 2nd ed. UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hirst, Sally, and Tom Godfrey. 2013. “Creating a Blended Delta. Module One.” In Blended Learning in English Language Teaching: Course Design and Implementation, edited by Brian Tomlinson and Claire Whittaker, 101–9. UK: British Council.

Holmes, Bryn, and John Gardner. 2006. e-Learning Concepts and Practice. Great Britain: MPG Books Group.

Hyland, Ken. 2007. “English for Specific Purposes: Some Influences and Impacts.” In International Handbook of English Language Teaching, edited by Jim Cummins and Chris Davison, 391–402. New York: Springer.

Kerres, Michael, and Claudia de Witt. 2003. “A Didactical Framework for the Design of Blended Learning Arrangements.” Journal of Educational Media 28 (2–3): 101–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/1358165032000165653.

King, Sara E., and Katie Cerrone Arnold. 2012. “Blended Learning Environments in Higher Education: A Case Study of How Professors Make it Happen.” Mid-Western Educational Researcher 25 (1-2): 44–59.

Kirschner, Paul A., John Sweller, and Richard E. Clark. 2006. “Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching.” Educational Psychologist 41 (2): 75–86. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4102_1.

Koohang, Alex, and Angela Durante. 2003. “Learners’ Perceptions toward the Web-based Distance Learning Activities/Assignments Portion of an Undergraduate Hybrid Instructional Model.” Journal of Information Technology Education 2: 105–13.

Littlejohn, Allison, and Chris Pegler. 2007. Preparing for Blended e-Learning. Abingdon: Routledge.

Marzano, Robert J., and John S. Kendall. 2007. The New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Mehanna, Wassila Naamani. 2004. “e-Pedagogy: The Pedagogies of e-Learning.” AJLT-J Research in Learning Technology 12 (3): 279–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/0968776042000259582.

Muilenburg, Lin Y., and Zane L. Berge. 2005. “Student Barriers to Online Learning: A Factor Analytic Study.” Distance Education 26 (1): 29–48. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587910500081269.

Murdoch, Maureen, Alisha Baines Simon, Melissa Anderson Polusny, Ann Kay Bangerter, Joseph Patrick Grill, Siamak Noorbaloochi, and Melissa Ruth Partin. 2014. “Impact of Different Privacy Conditions and Incentives on Survey Response Rate, Participant Representativeness, and Disclosure of Sensitive Information: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” BMC Medical Methodology 14: 90–100. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-14-90.

Nikitenko, Gleb. 2009. “Correlational Analysis of Adult Students’ Self-directed Learning Readiness, Affective Learning Outcomes, Prior Electronic Learning Experience, and Age in Hybrid and Online Course-Delivery Formats.” PhD diss., The University of San Francisco. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/216983572.pdf.

Otto, Sue E. K. 2017. “From Past to Present: A Hundred Years of Technology for L2 Learning.” In The Handbook of Technology and Second Language Teaching and Learning, edited by Carol A. Chapelle and Shanon Sauro, 10–25. Malaysia: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Procter, Chris. 2003. “Blended Learning in Practice.” In Proceedings of the Education in a Changing Environment Conference (2003). Salford, UK: University of Salford. www.ece.salford.ac.uk/proceedings/papers/cp_03.rtf.

Rodriguez, Migdalia Elizabeth. 2016. “Effective Pedagogical Practices in Online English Language Teacher Education.” PhD diss., The University of Arizona.

Rosen, Lauren. 2009. “Reaching Students: A Hybrid Approach to Language Learning.” In Second Language Teaching and Learning in the Net Generation, edited by Raquel Oxford and Jeffrey Oxford, 65–84. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i, National Foreign Language Resource Center Mānoa.

Shea, Peter, Chun Sau Li, Karen Swan, and Alexandra Pickett. 2019. “Developing Learning Community in Online Asynchronous College Courses: The Role of Teaching Presence.” Online Learning 9 (4): 59–82. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v9i4.1779.

Siemens, George. 2005. “Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age.” International Journal of Instructional Technology & Distance Learning 2 (1). http://www.itdl.org/Journal/Jan_05/index.htm.

Swan, K. 2003. “Learning Effectiveness: What the Research Tells Us.” In Elements of Quality Online Education, Practice and Direction, edited by J. Bourne and J. C. Moore, 13–45. Needham, MA: Sloan Center for Online Education.

Tomlinson, Brian, ed. 2013. “Comments on Part 4.” In Blended Learning in English Language Teaching: Course Design and Implementation, edited by Brian Tomlinson and Claire Whittaker, 221–22. UK: British Council.

Whittaker, Claire. 2014. “Blended Learning in EFL: Adopting a Principled Approach to Integrating Technology.” In Using Technology in Foreign Language Teaching, edited by Rahma Al-Mahrooqui and Salah Troudi, 8–29. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Whittaker, Claire, ed. 2013. “Conclusion.” In Blended Learning in English Language Teaching: Course Design and Implementation, edited by Brian Tomlinson and Claire Whittaker, 225–40. UK: British Council.

—. 2013. “Introduction.” In Blended Learning in English Language Teaching: Course Design and Implementation, edited by Brian Tomlinson and Claire Whittaker, 9–23. UK: British Council.

Yin, Robert K. 2011. Qualitative Research from Start to Finish. USA: The Guilford Press.

Published
2020-11-16
How to Cite
VičičP. (2020). A Fully Integrated Approach to Blended Language Learning. ELOPE: English Language Overseas Perspectives and Enquiries, 17(2), 219-238. https://doi.org/10.4312/elope.17.2.219-238
Section
English Language and Literature Teaching