Social Mobilization in Localities and Urban Change in South Korea
The Evolution of the Geumho-Haengdang-Hawangsimni Community Movement in Seoul
South Korea experienced rapid economic and urban growth in the past that was driven by an interventionist state and speculative markets, and citizens were largely excluded from decision making. Urban change also used to be characterized by the large-scale demolition of poor neighbourhoods and forced evictions of the residents. As a result, different forms of social mobilization emerged in localities, aiming to protect the interests of the residents and local communities, and claim their collective right to the city. The article examines the evolution of the Geumho-Haengdang-Hawangsimni community movement in Seoul as a case of social mobilization in localities. The qualitative case study is based on a longitudinal analysis of causes for its emergence, aims, organization and practice of the community movement to better understand its importance for urban change in South Korea. The results of the study show that the community movement strengthened community building and contributed to urban change at different levels. They also reveal the contradictory relation between the state and community movements, which must maintain their financial, organizational and political autonomy while collaborating with the state to achieve their aims. In doing so, the Geumho-Haengdang-Hawangsimni community movement has successfully maintained its autonomy, for which it can be considered a good example of autonomous and sustainable community building in cities.
Ahn, Hyunchan 안현찬, Seongnam Wi 위성남 in Chang Bok Yu 유창복. 2016. Maeulgongdongche 마을공동체 (Neighbourhood Community). Seul: The Seoul Institute 서울연구원.
Castells, Manuel. 1983. The City and the Grassroots: A Cross-Cultural Theory of Urban Social Movements. Berkeley: University of California Press.
———.1992. »Four Asian Tigers With a Dragon Head: A Comparative Analysis of the State. Economy, and Society in the Asian Pacific Rim.« V States and Development in the Asia Pacific Rim, uredila Richard P. Appelbaum in Jeffrey Henderson, 33–70. London: Sage.
–––. 2009. The Power of Identity: The Information Age: Economy, Society, and Culture, Second edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
Centre for Livable Cities in The Seoul Institute. 2017. Planning for Communities, Lessons from Seoul and Singapore. Singapur: Centre for Livable Cities.
Chang, Yi, Won-seok Nam in Chaewon Lee. 2018. Coping with Exploding Housing Demand: Experience of Seoul. Seul: The Seoul Institute.
Cho, Im Sik in Blaž Križnik. 2017. Community-Based Urban Development, Evolving Urban Paradigms in Singapore and Seoul. Singapur: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-981-10-1987-6.
–––. 2020. »Sharing Seoul: Appropriating Alleys as Communal Space through Localized Sharing Practices.« Built Environment 46 (1): 99–114. doi: 10.2148/benv.46.1.99.
Cho, Myung Rae. 1998. »Progressive Community Movements in Korea: The Case of the Hangdang Redevelopment Area in Seoul.« International Journal of Urban Sciences 2 (1): 92–109. doi: 10.1080/12265934.1998.9693409.
Day, Graham. 2006. Community and Everyday Life. Abingdon: Routledge.
DeFilippis, James, Robert Fisher in Eric Shragge. 2010. Contesting Community: The Limits and Potential of Local Organizing. New Jersey: Rutgers University.
Douglass, Mike, Orathai Ard-Am in Ik Ki Kim. 2001. »Urban Poverty and the Environment: Social Capital and State-Community Synergy in Seoul and Bangkok.« V Livable Cities? The Politics of Urban Livelihood and Sustainability, uredil Peter Evans, 31–66. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Fainstein, Susan S. 2011. »Urban Social Movements, Citizen Participation, and Trust Networks.« V Contention and Trust in Cities and States, uredila Michael Hanagan in Chris Tilly, 175–78. Dordrecht: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-0756-6.
Fainstein, Susan. S. in Cliford Hirst. 1995. »Urban Social Movements.« V Theories of Urban Politics, uredili David Judge, Gerry Stoker in Hal Wolman, 181–204. London: Sage.
Ha, Seong-Kyu. 2001. »Substandard Settlements and Joint Redevelopment Projects in Seoul.« Habitat International 25 (3): 385–97. doi: 10.1016/S0197-3975(01)00011-X.
Harvey, David. 2012. Rebel Cities. From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution. London: Verso.
Hawang 2–1 District Tenants Rights Committee 하왕2–1지구 세입자대책위원회. 1995. Hamkke eoureojineun gongdongchereul hyanghayeo 함께 어우러지는 공동체를 향하여 (Together in Harmony Towards the Community). Songhak Maeul: Hawang 2–1 District Tenants Rights Committee 하왕2–1지구 세입자대책위원회.
Ho, Kong Chong. 2019. Neighbourhoods for the City in Pacific Asia. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Jeong, Guhyo 정구효. 2012. »Hanguk dosigongdongcheundongui jeongaegwajeonggwa hyeomnyeokyeong moderui uimi 한국 도시공동체운동의 전개과정과 협력형 모델의 의미 (A Study on Development Process of Urban Community Movement of Korea and the Meaning of Collaboration Model).« Korean Studies Quarterly 한국학 35 (2): 7–34. doi: 10.25024/ksq.35.2.201206.7.
Katsiaficas, George N. 2012. Asia’s Unknown Uprisings. Volume 1, South Korean Social Movements in the 20th Century. Oakland: PM Press.
Kim, Bo-geum 김보금. 1999. »Geumho-dong Songhak maeul jaegaebarui gyeongu 금호동 송학마을 재개발의 경우 (The Case of Geumho-dong Songhak Maeul Urban Redevelopment).« The Hankyoreh 한겨레신문, 23. januar, 1999: 7.
Kim, Dong-won 김동원. 1994 . Haengdangdong saramdeul 행당동 사람들 (Haengdang-dong People, DVD). Seul: DSMEDIA.
–––.김동원. 1999 . Tto hanaui sesang: Haengdang-dong saramdeul 2 또 하나의 세상: 행당동 사람들 2 (Another World We Are Making: Haengdang-dong People 2, DVD). Seul: DSMEDIA.
Kim, Gieon 김기언. 1997. »Eoryeoulttae ppurin jageun ssiat Songhak maeul ‘Haengdangbaeumteo’ 어려울때 뿌린 작은 씨앗 송학마을 ‘행당배움터’ (Songhak Maeul ‘Haengdangbaeumto’, Small Seed Planted in Difficult Times).« Elementary School Education 초등우리교육 94: 130–33.
Kim, Joong-sik 김중식. 1996. »Gajang jayuropgo heomureomneun sesang 가장 자유롭고 허물없는 세상 (The Most Free and Flawless World).« Kyunghyang Shinmun 경향신문, 5. december, 1996: 25.
Kim, Jun Hui 김준희. 2017. »Motda irun kkum, dasi gongdongchereul hyanghayeo: Seoul Seongdong 못다 이룬 꿈, 다시 공동체를 향하여: 서울 성동 (Unrealised Dream, Back to the Community: Seoul, Seongdong).« V Maeulgongdongche undongui wonhyeongeul chajaseo, 1970-1990 nyeondae minjungui maeulmandeulgi 마을공동체 운동의 원형을 찾아서, 1970~1990년대 민중의 마을만들기 (Searching for the Origin of Neighborhood Community Movements: Popular Maeul—Making from 1970s to 1990s), uredil Publishing Committee for the History of Poor Community Movements 빈민지역운동사 발간위원회, 107–59. Seul: Hanul 한울.
Kim, Kwang-Joong in Il-Sung Yoon. 2003. »Urban Renewal and Change of the 20th Century Seoul.« V Seoul, Twentieth Century: Growth and Change of the Last 100 Years, uredil Kwang-Joong Kim, 543–96. Seul: SDI.
Kim, Sangmin. 2017. »From Protest to Collaboration: The Evolution of the Community Movements Amid Sociopolitical Transformation in South Korea.« Urban Studies 54 (16): 3806–25. doi: 10.1177/0042098016681705.
Kim, Soo-hyun. 2010. »Issues of Squatters and Eviction in Seoul: From the Perspectives of the Dual Roles of the State.« City, Culture and Society 1 (3): 135–43. doi: 10.1016/j.ccs.2010.10.002.
Kim, Su in Blaž Križnik. 2018. »Civic Urbanism and the State: Transition of the State Involvement in Community Building in Seoul, South Korea.« V Emerging Civic Urbanisms/Designing for Social Impact, uredil GASS/PRCDNET/SFI 2018, 228–52. Singapur: National University of Singapore.
Kim, Sunhyuk. 2013. »Democratization and Social Movements in South Korea: A Civil Society Perspective.« V East Asian Social Movements, Power, Protest, and Change in a Dynamic Region, uredila Jeff Broadbent in Vicky Brockman, 141–56. New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-09626-1.
Križnik, Blaž. 2009. Lokalni odzivi na globalne izzive: kulturni okvir preobrazbe Barcelone in Seula. Ljubljana: Založba FDV.
–––. 2018. »Ulice kot prostor skupnostnega povezovanja: primer urbane regeneracije soseske Samdeok v Seulu.« Asian Studies 6 (2): 231–51. doi: 10.4312/as.2018.6.2.231-251.
Križnik, Blaž, Im Sik Cho in Su Kim. 2019. »Preobrazba mest v Vzhodni Aziji: Primerjava vključevanja javnosti v prenovo stanovanjskih sosesk v Južni Koreji in Singapurju.« V Procesi in odnosi v Vzhodni Aziji: zbornik EARL, uredili Andrej Bekeš, Jana S. Rošker in Zlatko Šabič, 139–59. Ljubljana: Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani. doi: 10.4312/9789610602699.
Ledwith, Margaret. 2011. Community Development, A Critical Approach. Bristol: Policy Press.
Lee, Jeongu 이정우. 1997. »‘Urisikguneun 4baengmyeongijyo’, Seoul Geumhodong Songhak maeul cheolgeomin 102 gagu gongdongchesaenghwal ‘우리식구는 4백명이죠’, 서울 금호동 송학마을 철거민 102가구 공동체생활 (‘Our Family has Four Hundred Members’, Communal Life of 102 Evictees’ Households in Songhak Maeul, Geumho-dong, Seoul).« The Hankyoreh 한겨레신문, 2. februar, 1997: 11.
Manzi, Tony, Karen Lucas, Tony Loyd Jones in Judith Allen. 2010. Social Sustainability in Urban Areas: Communities, Connectivity, and the Urban Fabric. London: Earthscan.
Massey, Doreen. 1994. Space, Place and Gender. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Mayer, Margit. 2007. »Contesting the Neoliberalization of Urban Governance.« V Contesting Neoliberalism: Urban Frontiers, uredili Helga Leitner, Jamie Peck in Eric S. Sheppard, 90–115. New York: Guildford Press.
Mobrand, Erik. 2008. »Struggles Over Unlicensed Housing in Seoul, 1960–80.« Urban Studies 45 (2): 367–89. doi: 10.1177/0042098007085968.
NDPC (Nongol Area Data Publication Comittee) 논골지역자료발간위원회. 2019. Hawang 2-1 jiguui sigan: Nongolsinhyeop 20nyeoneul malhada 하왕2–1지구의 시간: 논골신협 20년을 말하다 (Time of the Hawnag 2–1 District: 20 years of Nongol Credit Union). Seul: Nongol Credit Union 논골신용협동조합.
Park, Bae-gyun. 1998. »Where Do Tigers Sleep at Night? The State’s Role in Housing Policy in South Korea and Singapore.« Economic Geography 74 (3): 272–88. doi: 10.1111/j.1944-8287.1998.tb00116.x.
Park, Joo-Hyung 박주형. 2013. »Doguhwadoeneun ‘gongdongche’: Seoulsi ‘maeulgongdongche mandeulgi saeob’e daehan bipanjeok gochal 도구화되는 ‘공동체’: 서울시 ‘마을공동체 만들기 사업’에 대한 비판적 고찰 (Instrumentalizing ‘Community’: A Critical Analysis on ‘Community-Building Program’ of Seoul Metropolitan Government).« Space and Environment 공간과 사회 23 (1): 4–43.
Park, Won-soon. 2014. »In Seoul, the Citizens are the Mayor.« Public Administration Review 74 (4): 442–43. doi: 10.1111/puar.12243.
Pickvance, Chris. 1985: »The Rise and Fall of Urban Movements and the Role of Comparative Analysis.« Environment and Planning D Society and Space 3 (1): 31–53. doi: 10.1068/d030031.
Robson, Terry. 2000. The State and Community Action. London: Pluto.
SDI (Seoul Development Institute). 1994, 2000. Thematic Maps of Seoul. Seul: SDI.
–––. (SDI). 1996. Jutaeggaeryangjaegaebal yeonhyeogyeongu 주택개량재개발 연혁연구 (Study on the History of Housing Improvement Redevelopment). Seul: SDI.
Seongdong-gu 성동구. 2014. Seongdonga, masilgaja! Seongdong maeul iyagi 성동아, 마실가자! 성동마을 이야기 (Let’s Go for a Walk, Seong-dong! The Story of Seongdong Maeul). Seul: Seongdong-gu.
SMG (Seoul Metropolitan Government). 2015. Seoul, Life and People: White Paper on Neighborhood Communities of Seoul. Seul: SMG.
–––. 2020. Seoul yeollindeiteo gwangjang 서울 열린데이터 광장 (Seoul Open Data Plaza). http://data.seoul.go.kr/ (dostop 30. julij 2020).
Shin, Hyun Bang. 2018. »Urban Movements and the Genealogy of Urban Rights Discourses: The Case of Urban Protesters against Redevelopment and Displacement in Seoul, South Korea.« Annals of the American Association of Geographers 108 (2): 356–69. doi: 10.1080/24694452.2017.1392844.
Somerville, Peter. 2016. Understanding Community: Politics, Policy and Practice. Bristol: Policy Press.
Yang, Seong-cheol 양성철. 1994. »Jaegaebaljigu bosangssago seipja·johapjajeun chungdoljohap 재개발지구 보상싸고 세입자·조합 잦은 충돌조합 (Redevelopment District’s Low Compensations and Frequent Tenant-Union Conflicts).« Chungang Ilbo 중앙일보 19. maj, 1994.
Wi, Seongnam 위성남. 2015. »Geumho-Haengdang-Hawangjiyeogui juminundong sarye bunseok 금호·행당·하왕지역의 주민운동 사례 분석 (A Case Study Analysis of the Resident Movement in Geumho, Haengdang and Hawang Area).« V Saeroun juminjojik bangbeomnon, saryewa bunseok 새로운 주민조직 방법론, 사례와 분석 (Methodology of the New Residents Organizations, Cases and Analysis), uredila Korea Democracy Foundation 민주화운동기념사업회, 47–69. Seul: Korea Democracy Foundation.
Copyright (c) 2021 Blaž Križnik
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors are confirming that they are the authors of the submitting article, which will be published (print and online) in journal Asian Studies by Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, Aškerčeva 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia). Author’s name will be evident in the article in journal. All decisions regarding layout and distribution of the work are in hands of the publisher.
- Authors guarantee that the work is their own original creation and does not infringe any statutory or common-law copyright or any proprietary right of any third party. In case of claims by third parties, authors commit their self to defend the interests of the publisher, and shall cover any potential costs.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.