Chinese Philosophy and Universal Values in Contemporary China

  • John Makeham La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia
Keywords: universal values, tianxia, Chen Lai, Xu Jilin, Ge Zhaoguang

Abstract

Consistent with its growing economic, political and military might, China wants due recognition by and engagement with the global community of nations. This aspiration is complicated by the fact that Chinese political leaders and intellectuals continue to struggle with how “Chinese values” fit with “universal values”, and whether there is a single global modernity or whether there are multiple modernities and multiple—perhaps competing—universal values. In this paper I examine how some prominent Chinese philosophers are engaging with these issues, despite the fact that in 2013 the topic of “universal values” was prohibited as a discussion topic in universities on the mainland.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ames, Roger T. 2010. Confucian Role Ethics: A Vocabulary. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.

Ames, Roger T. 2016. “Theorizing ‘Person’ in Confucian Ethics: A Good Place to Start.” Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies 16 (2): 141–62.

Angle, Stephen C. 2012. Contemporary Confucian Political Philosophy. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Babones, Salvatore. 2017. “American Tianxia: When Chinese Philosophy Meets American Power.” Foreign Affairs, June 22, 2017. Accessed July 2, 2018. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2017-06-22/american-tianxia.

Barr, Michael D. 2000. “Lee Kuan Yew and the ‘Asian Values’ Debate.” Asian Studies Review 24 (3): 309–34.

Bell, Daniel A. 2006. Beyond Liberal Democracy: Political Thinking for an East Asian Context. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

–––. 2015. The China Model: Political Meritocracy and the Limits of Democracy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Chang, Hao. 1987. Chinese Intellectuals in Crisis: Search for Meaning and Order (1890–1911). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Chang, Maukuei. 2005. “The Movement to Indigenize the Social Sciences in Taiwan: Origin and Predicaments.” In Cultural, Ethnic, and Political Nationalism in Contemporary Taiwan: Bentuhua, edited by John Makeham, and A-chin Hsiau, 221–60. New York: Palgrave.

Chen, Lai 陳來. 1998. “Shei zhi zeren? He zhong lunli? Cong Rujia lunli kan shijie lunli xuanyan 誰之責任?何種倫理?——從儒家倫理看世界倫理宣言 (Whose Responsibility? What Kind of Ethics? The Declaration toward a Global Ethic Viewed from Confucian Ethics).” Dushu 10: 8–12.

–––. 2010. “Ruhe kandai guoxue re 如何看待國學熱 (How Should Guoxue Fever be Regarded?).” Guangming ribao, August 2, 2010. Accessed August 5, 2018. http://culture.china.com.cn/guoxue/2010-08/02/content_20619540.htm.

–––. 2014. Renxue benti lun 仁學本體論 (Humaneness-Based Ontology). Beijing: Sanlian Shudian.

–––. 2015a. “Chongfen renshi Zhonghua dute jiazhiguan: cong Zhong-Xi bijiao kan 充分認識中華獨特價值觀——從中西比較看 (Fully Recognize the Unique Values of Zhonghua: Comparing China and the West).” Renmin ribao, April 4, 2015.

–––. 2015b. Zhonghua wenming de hexin jiazhi 中華文明的核心價值 (The Core Values of Chinese Civilization). Beijing. Sanlian Shudian.

Chen, Ming 陳明. 2009. “Qidai yu yilü: cong Qinghua Guoxue yuan kan Renda Guoxue Yuan 期待與疑慮:從清華國學院看人大國學院 (Expectations and Doubts: Looking at Renmin University’s Guoxue Institute from the Perspective of the Tsinghua Academy of Chinese Learning).” In Chen Ming, Wenhua Ruxue: sibian yu lunbian 文化儒學:思辨與論辯 (Cultural Ruxue: Thoughts and Arguments). Chengdu: Sichuan renmin chubanshe.

Defoort, Carine. 2001. “Is There such a Thing as Chinese Philosophy?” Philosophy East and West 51 (3): 393–413.

Defoort, Carine, and Ge Zhaoguang, eds. 2006. “Collection of Articles on the Theme of ‘The Legitimacy of Chinese Philosophy’.” Contemporary Chinese Thought 37 (1–3).

Gan, Yang 甘陽, et al. 2014. “Kang Youwei yu zhiduhua Ruxue 康有為與制度化儒學 (Kang Youwei and Institutionalized Confucianism).” Kaifang shidai 5: 12–41.

Ge, Zhaoguang 葛兆光. 2014. He wei Zhongguo? Jiangyu, minzu, wenhua yu lishi 何為「中國」?疆域、民族、文化與歷史 (What is China? Territory, Ethnicity, Culture and History). Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.

–––. 2017. “Yi xiang tian kai: jin nian lai dalu xin Ruxue de zhengzhi suqiu 異想天開——近年來大陸新儒學的政治訴求 (A Flight of Fancy: The Political Demands of Mainland New Confucians in Recent Years).” Accessed August 12, 2018. http://www.aisixiang.com/data/104951.html.

Guo, Qiyong 郭齊勇. 2002. “Ye tan ‘zi wei fu yin’ yu Mengzi lun Shun 也談「子为父隱」與孟子論舜 (On the Son’s Concealment of His Father’s Crime and Mencius’s View of Shun).” Zhexue yanjiu 10: 27–30.

–––, ed. 2004. Rujia lunli zhengming ji 儒家倫理爭鳴集 (Collection of Essays on the Confucian Ethics Debate). Wuhan. Hubei jiaoyu chubanshe.

Huang, Yong. 2017. “Why an Upright Son Does Not Disclose His Father Stealing a Sheep: A Neglected Aspect of the Confucian Conception of Filial Piety.” Asian Studies 1: 15–45.

Jenco, Leigh. 2017. “How should We Use the Chinese Past? Contemporary Confucianism, the ‘Reorganization of the National Heritage’ and Non-Western Histories of Thought in a Global Age.” European Journal of Political Theory 16 (4): 450–69.

Jiao, Guocheng 焦國成. 2010. “Zengshe guoxue wei yiji xueke hen you biyao 增設國學為一級學科很有必要 (On the Need to Add Guoxue to the Level 1 Disciplinary Categories).” Guangming ribao, September 13, 2010.

Liu, Qingping 劉清平. 2000. “Lun Kong-Meng Ruxue de xueqin tuantixing tezheng 論孔孟儒學的血親團體性特徵 (On the Characteristics of Consanguineous Community in Confucius-Mencius Confucianism).” Zhexue men 哲學門 (Philosophy) 1: 80–101. Wuhan: Hubei jiaoyu chubanshe.

–––. 2002. “Meide haishi fubai? Xi Mengzi zhong youguan Shun de liangge anli 美德還是腐敗?析《孟子》中有關舜的两個案例 (Virtue or Corruption? An Analysis of Two Cases of Shun in the Mencius).” Zhexue yanjiu 哲學研究 (Philosophical Studies) 2: 43–47.

–––. 2003. “Filiality versus Sociality and Individuality: On Confucianism as ‘Consanguinitism’.” Philosophy East and West 53 (2): 234–50.

Makeham, John. 2011. “The Revival of Guoxue: Historical Antecedents and Contemporary Aspirations.” China Perspectives 1: 14–21.

–––. 2020. “Philosophie chinoise et valeurs universelles en Chine contemporaine.” In Que penser en Chine aujourd’hui?, edited by Anne Cheng. Paris: Gallimard. In press.

Pye, Lucian W. 1992. The Spirit of Chinese Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Qiao, Jian 喬健 et al., eds. 2001. 21 shiji de Zhongguo shehuixue yu renleixue 二十一世紀的中國社會學與人類學 (Chinese Sociology and Anthropology in the 21st Century). Kaohsiung: Liwen chubanshe.

Rosemont, Henry Jr., and Roger T. Ames. 2016. Confucian Role Ethics: A Moral Vision for the 21st Century? Taipei: National Taiwan University Press.

Sarkissian, Hagop. 2010. “Recent Approaches to Confucian Filial Morality.” Philosophy Compass 5 (9): 725–34.

Shun, Kwong-loi. 2009. “Studying Confucian and Comparative Ethics: Methodological Reflections.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 36 (3): 455–78.

Tillman, Hoyt Cleveland. 2018. “China’s Particular Values and the Issue of Universal Significance: Contemporary Confucians amidst the Politics of Universal Values.” Philosophy East and West 68 (4): 1265–91.

Wang, Gungwu. 2013. Renewal: The Chinese State and the New Global History. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.

Xi, Jinping 習近平. 2016. “Xi Jinping zai Quanguo Dangxiao gongzuo huiyi shang de jianghua 習近平在全國党校工作會議上的講話 (Xi Jinping’s Speech at the Work Conference of the National Party School).” Qiu shi, April 30, 2016. Accessed June 5, 2018. http://www.qstheory.cn/dukan/qs/2016-04/30/c_1118772415.htm.

Xu, Jilin 許紀霖. 2015. “Xin tianxiazhuyi: chongjian Zhongguo de neiwai zhixu 新天下主義:重建中國的内外秩序 (New Tianxia-ism: Reconstructing China’s Internal and External Orders).” Zhishi fenzi luncong 知識分子論叢 (Intellectuals) 13. Accessed May 30, 2018. http://www.aisixiang.com/data/91702.html.

Xu, Jieshun 徐杰舜, ed. 2001. Bentuhua: Renleixue de da qushi 本土化:人類學的大趨勢 (Indigenenization: The Main Trend in Anthropology). Guangxi: Minzu chubanshe.

Zeng, Yi 曾亦, and Guo Xiaodong 郭曉東, eds. 2014. He wei pushi? Shei de ­jiazhi? Dangdai Rujia pushi jiazhi 何謂普世?誰之价值?當代儒家論普世價值 (What is Universal? Whose Values? Contemporary Confucians Discuss Universal Values). Shanghai: Huadong shifan daxue.

Zhao, Tingyang. 2006. “Rethinking Empire from a Chinese Concept ‘All-under-Heaven’ (Tian-xia, 天下).” Social Identities 12 (1): 29–41.

Zhu, Hanmin 朱漢民. 2009. “Ba wei zhuanjia: guoxue shi yimen xueke 八位專家:國學是一門學科 (Eight Experts: Guoxue is a Discipline).” Guangming ribao, October 12, 2009.

Published
2020-05-20
How to Cite
MakehamJ. (2020). Chinese Philosophy and Universal Values in Contemporary China. Asian Studies, 8(2), 311-334. https://doi.org/10.4312/as.2020.8.2.311-334