Philosophical Transmission and Contestation
The Impact of Qing Confucianism in Southern Vietnam
Keywords:Qing Confucianism, Southern Vietnam, practical learning, Yangming studies, transmitted and contested
Southern Vietnam was reclaimed by the Vietnamese in the mid-seventeenth century. They first brought their folk Buddhism and various popular religions to new land; however, the bureaucratic system then forced the Chinese Han–Song dynasties’ institutionalized and politicalized Confucianism on the population. The arrival of the Chinese from overseas since the late seventeenth century marked the introduction of Qing Confucianism into Southern Vietnam, shaping the pro-Yangming studies among local literati. Many writers claim that Qing Confucianism had no impact on Vietnam. Obviously, however, these writers ignored the diversity of Vietnamese Confucianism in the new frontiers in the South. Qing Confucianism was truly absorbed into many aspects of life among the local gentry, popularizing the so-called pro-Yangming studies.
The article aims to study the transmission, contestation, transformation, and manipulation of Qing Confucianism in Southern Vietnam by penetrating deeper into the life, career, mentality, merits, and influence of local Confucianists and reviving the legacies of practical learning in local scholarship. The research discovers that the practical learning of Qing Confucianism dominated the way of thinking and acting of local elites, affecting ideological, educational, cultural and socio-economic domains of local society. However, the domination of the classical Confucian orthodoxy and the lack of state-sponsored institutionalization in late feudal periods, as well as the later overwhelming imposition of Western civilization under French colonial rule, seriously challenged and downgraded the impacts of Qing Confucianism in Vietnam. Therefore, Yangming studies were once transmitted but had limited impact on Vietnam.
Amer, Ramses. 1991. The Ethnic Chinese in Vietnam and Sino-Vietnamese Relations. Kuala Lumpur: Forum.
Ba, Xuyên. 1949. “Phê bình sách Vương Dương Minh của ông Phan Văn Hùm (The Critics on Phan Van Hum’s Book about Wang Yangming).” Tập kỷ-yếu Hội Khuyến-Học (Learning Promotion Gazetteer), vol. 3.
Baldanza, Kathlene. 2016. Ming China and Vietnam: Negotiating Borders in Early Modern Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Barrett, Tracy C. 2012. The Chinese Diaspora in Southeast Asia: The Overseas Chinese in Indo-China. London, New York: I.B. Tauris.
Borri, Christoforo. 1998. Xứ Đàng Trong năm 1621 (Cochinchina in 1621). Translated by Hồng Nhuệ and Nguyễn Khắc Xuyên. Hochiminh City: Nxb. Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh.
Brocheux, Pierre. 1995. The Mekong Delta: Ecology, Economy and Evolution, 1860–1960. Madison: University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Bùi, Văn Khánh, and Trương Ngọc Tường. 1996. Văn bia Văn Thánh Miếu – phiên âm, dịch nghĩa (Inscriptions in the Temple of Literature: Transcription and Translation). Vĩnh Long: Ban Quản lý di tích tỉnh Vĩnh Long.
Buttinger, Joseph. 1968. Vietnam: A Political History. New York: Praeger.
——. 1972. A Dragon Defiant: A Short History of Vietnam. New York, Washington: Praeger Publishers.
Cao, Tự Thanh. 1996. Nho giáo ở Gia Định (Confucianism in Gia Định (Southern Vietnam)). Hochiminh City: Nxb. Văn hóa Sài Gòn.
Chan, Wing-tsit. 1963. “Dynamic Idealism in Wang Yang-ming.” In A Sourcebook in Chinese Philosophy, edited by Wing-tsit Chan, 654–91. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Chan, Yuk Wah. 2009. “Language Power: Relational Rhetoric and Historical Taciturnity: A Study of Vietnam-China Relationship.” In Connecting and Distancing: Southeast Asia and China, edited by Ho Khai Leong, 230–51. Singapore: ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute.
Chen, Ching-Ho. 1960. “Mấy điều nhận xét về Minh hương xã và các cổ tích tại Hội An (Some Remarks on the Minh Hương Village and Ancient Relics in Hoi An).” Việt Nam Khảo cổ tập san (Vietnam Journal of Archaeology) 1: 1–30.
——. 1967. “On the Literary Work of the Mạc, Governor of Ha-tien, with Special Reference to the Ha-tien Thap-vinh.” The Historical Science 40 (2/3): 149(311)–221(373).
——. 2008. “Mac Thien Tu and Phrayataksin: A Survey on their Political Stand, Conflict, and Background.” In The Chinese Diaspora in the Pacific 1500–1900, edited by Anthony Reid, 69–110. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.
Chen, Wen 陳文. 2010. “Yuenan Ruanshi wangchao de keju qushi jiqi yingxiang 越南阮氏王朝的科舉取士及其影響 (The Imperial Examination and Its Influence in Vietnam’s Nguyen Dynasty).” Jinan xuebao 暨南學報 (Zhexue shehuikexue ban 哲學社會科學版) (Journal of Jinan University) 1 (44): 146–52.
Chen, Xia, Peng Guoxing, and James Miller. 2014. “‘Hard-Hearted’ and ‘Soft-Hearted’ Ecologies: A Reading of Confucian and Taoist Classics.” In Religion and Ecological Sustainability in China, edited by James Miller, Dan Smyer Yu, and Peter van de Veer, 71–83. London, NY: Routledge
Cheng, Linhui 程林輝. 2005. “Ruxue zai Yuenan de chuanbo he yingxiang 儒學在越南的傳播和影響 (The Dissemination and Influence of Confucianism in Vietnam).” Nanchang Daxue xuebao 南昌大學學報（人文社會科學版） (Journal of Nanchang University (Humanities and Social Sciences Edition) 36 (6): 117–22.
Cheung, Melissa. 2002. “The Legal Position of Ethnic Chinese in Indochina under French Rule.” In Law and the Chinese in Southeast Asia, edited by Barry Hooker, 32–64. Singapore: ISHEAF – Yusof Ishak Institute.
Đào, Duy Anh 1939. Khổng giáo phê bình tiểu luận (Short Critique of Confucianism). Huế: Nxb. Quan hải Tùng thư.
Đào, Trinh Nhất. n. d. Vương Dương Minh: người xướng ra học-thuyết tri lương-tri và tri-hành hợp nhất (Wang Yangming: The Promoter of the Theory of Attaining the Supreme Conscience (致良知) and the Unity of Knowledge and Action). Sài Gòn: Tân Việt.
Đỗ, Kim Trường. 2018. “Hoạt động giáo dục thời chúa Nguyễn qua các khoa thi (Educational Activities under the Nguyễn Lords Period).” Xưa và Nay 11: 23–25.
Đông, Hồ. 1970. Văn học miền Nam - Văn học Hà Tiên (Literature in Southern Vietnam – Hà Tiên Literature). Sài Gòn: Nxb Quỳnh Lâm.
Dror, Olga. 2018. Making Two Vietnam: War and Youth Identities, 1965–1975. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Duara, Prasenjit. 1988. “Superscribing Symbols: The Myth of Guandi, the Chinese God of War.” Journal of Asian Studies 47 (4): 778–95.
Duong, Dung N. 2004. “An Exploration of Vietnamese Confucian Spirituality: The Idea of the Unity of the Three Teachings (tam giao dong nguyen).” In Confucian Spirituality, vol. 2, edited by Tu Weiming, and Mary Evelyn Tucker, 289–318. New York: Crossroad Publication Company.
Dutton, George E., and Jayne S. Werner. 2012. Sources of Vietnamese Tradition. New York: Colombia University Press.
Elman, Benjamin A., John B. Duncan, and Herman Ooms. 2002. “Introduction.” In Rethinking Confucianism: Past and Present in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, edited by Benjamin A. Elman, John B. Duncan, and Herman Ooms, 1–29. Los Angeles: UCLA Asian Pacific Monograph Series.
Engelbert, Thomas. 2011. “Vietnamese-Chinese Relations in Southern Vietnam during the First Indochina Conflict.” In Minorities at Large: New Approaches to Minority Ethnicity in Vietnam, edited by Philip Taylor, 191–230. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Faure, David. 1999. “The Emperor in the Village: Representing the State in South China.” In State and Court Ritual in China, edited by Joseph P. McDermott, 267–98. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fitzgerald, Charles Patrick. 1972. The Southern Expansion of the Chinese People. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Goscha, Christopher E. 2012. Going Indochinese: Contesting Concepts of Space and Place in French Indochina. Copenhagen: NIAS Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Press.
Hall, Kenneth R. 1976. “Introduction.” In Explorations in the Early Southeast Asian History: The Origins of Southeast Asian Statecraft, edited by Kenneth R. Hall, and John K. Whitmore, 1–18. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
Ho Tai, Hue Tam. 1983. Millenarianism and Peasant Politics in Vietnam. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.
Holmgren, Jennifer. 1980. Chinese Colonization of Northern Vietnam: Administrative Geography and Political Development in the Tongking Delta, First to Sixth Centuries A.D. Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Hooker, M. Barry. 2002. “Introduction.” In Law and the Chinese in Southeast Asia, edited by Barry M. Hooker, vi–vii. Singapore: ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute.
Huang, Chun-chieh 黃俊傑, and Kim Sơn Nguyễn 阮金山. 2009. “Yuenan Ruxue ziliao jianjie 越南儒學資料簡介 (Introduction to Sources in Vietnamese Confucianism).” Taiwan Dongya wenming yanjiu xuekan 臺灣東亞文明研究學刊 (Taiwan Journal of East Asian Civilization Studies) 6 (2): 221–26.
Jamieson, Neil. 1993. Understanding Vietnam. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Kelly, David. 1998. “Freedom: A Eurasian Mosaic.” In Asian Freedoms: The Idea of Freedom in East and Southeast Asia, edited by David Kelly, and Anthony Reid, 1–18. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Kiernan, Ben. 2017. Vietnam: A History from Earliest Times to the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lamp, Alastair. 1970. The Mandarin Road to Old Hue: Narratives of Anglo-Vietnamese Diplomacy from the 17th Century to the Eve of the French Conquest. London: Chatto & Windus.
Lee, Cheuk Yin 李焯然. 2003. “Zhuzi sixiang yu Yuenan Ruxue 朱子思想與越南儒學 (The Learning of Zhu Xi and Vietnamese Confucianism).” Singapore Zhongguo wenhua yanjiusuo xuebao 中國文化研究所學報，新加坡 (Journal of Chinese Culture Research Institute, Singapore) 12 (43): 453–71.
Li, Qingxin 李庆新. 2013. “Moshi Hexian zhengquan (Gangkou guo) ji qi duiwai guanxi – jian tan Dongnanya lishi shang de ‘fei jingdian zhengquan’ 鄚氏河仙政权（‘港口国’）及其对外关系--兼谈东南亚历史上的‘非经典政权’(Mac’s Government (Ha Tien) and its Foreign Policy: Unofficial Government in the History of Southeast Asia).” Haiyang shi yanjiu 海洋史研究 (Study of Maritime History) 5: 1–13.
Li, Tana. 1998. Nguyen Cochinchina: Southern Vietnam in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Ithaca, N.Y.: Southeast Asia Program Publications.
——. 2004. “The Water Frontier: An Introduction.” In Water Frontier: Commerce and the Chinese in the Lower Mekong River, 1750–1880, edited by Nola Cooke, and Li Tana, 1–17. Singapore: Rowman & Little Field Publishers, Inc.
——. 2010. “The Ming Factor and the Emergence of the Việt in the 15th Century.” In Southeast Asia in the Fifteenth Century: The China Factor, edited by Geoff Wade, and Sun Laichen, 83–103. Singapore: National University Press.
——. 2011. “The Imported Book Trade and Confucian Learning in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Vietnam.” In New Perspectives on the History and Historiography of Southeast Asia: Continuing Explorations, edited by Michael Arthur, Aung-Thwin, and Kenneth R. Hall, 167–82. London, New York: Routledge.
Lin, Wei-chieh 林維杰. 2016. “Dongya Ruxue jiaoliu zhong de zhengtixing yu quyuxing – jianji Yuenan Ruxue de kaocha 東亞儒學交流中的整體性與區域性—兼及越南儒學的考察 (The Integrity and Regionality in East Asian Confucianism Exchanges and Investigation of Confucianism in Vietnam).” E Hu yuekan 鵝湖月刊 (Legein Monthly Journal) 41 (8): 1–10.
McHale, Frederick Shawn. 2004. Print and Power: Confucianism, Communism, and Buddhism in the Making of Modern Vietnam. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Ngạc Xuyên, Ca Văn Thỉnh. 1943. “Khổng học ở đất Đồng Nai (Confucian Studies in Dong Nai Region).” Đại Việt tập chí (Dai Viet Magazine) 22–23.
Ngô, Tất Tố. 1940. Phê bình Nho giáo Trần Trọng Kim (A Criticism of Trần Trọng Kim’s Confucianism). Hanoi: Mai Lĩnh.
Nguyễn, Bá Thế. 1957. Nguyễn Đình Chiểu: thân thế và thơ văn (Nguyễn Đình Chiểu: Life and Literature). Sài Gòn: Nxb. Tân Việt.
Nguyễn, Chí Trung. 2010. Cư dân Faifo – Hội An trong lịch sử (The Population of Faifo (Hội An) in History). Hanoi: Nxb. Đại học Quốc gia.
Nguyễn, Kim Sơn. 2003. “Nho giáo trong tương lai văn hóa Việt Nam (Confucianism in the Future of Vietnamese Culture).” Tạp chí Văn hóa - Nghệ thuật (Journal of Culture and Arts) 2.
Nguyen, Ngoc Huy. 1998. “The Confucian Incursion into Vietnam.” In Confucianism and the Family, edited by Walter H. Slote, George A. De Vos, 91–103. New York: State University of New York Press.
Nguyễn, Thị Thúy Hạnh 阮氏翠幸. 2017. “Shisan shiji zhi shijiu shiji Songru zhexue dui Yuenan Rushi sixiang de yingxiang 十三世紀至十九世紀宋儒哲學對越南儒士思想的影響 (The Impact Confucian Philosophy in Song Dynasty on Vietnam from Thirteenth Century to Nineteenth Century).” Zhongguo wenhua yanjiusuo xuebao 中國文化研究所學報 (Journal of Chinese Culture Research Institute) 16 (5): 11–16.
Phạm, Ngọc Hường. 2018. “Tìm hiểu về giáo dục Nho học thời Nguyễn ở Nam Bộ (Study on the Confucian Education of the Nguyễn Dynasty).” Tạp chí Hán Nôm (Sino-Nôm Journal) 4: 56–70.
Phạm, Việt Tuyền. 1965. Văn học miền Nam (The Literature of Southern Vietnam). Saigon: Nxb. Khai Trí.
Phan, Đại Doãn, ed. 1998. Một số vấn đề về Nho giáo Việt Nam (Some Issues on Vietnamese Confucianism). Hanoi: Nxb. Chính trị Quốc gia.
Phan, Văn Hùm. 2016. Vương Dương Minh: thân thế và học thuyết (Wang Yangming: Life and Theory). Hanoi: Nxb. Thế giới.
Quốc, sử quán triều Nguyễn. 2002. Đại Nam thực lục (Veritable Records of the Great South), vol. 1. Hanoi: Nxb. Giáo dục.
Reid, Anthony. 1988. Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce 1450–1680. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Richey, Jeffrey L. 2013. Confucius in East Asia: Confucianism’s History in China, Korea, Japan and Việt Nam. Ann Arbor: The Association for Asian Studies, Inc.
Riichiro, Fujiwara. 1974: “Chính sách đối với dân Trung Hoa di cư của các triều đại Việt Nam (Policy for Chinese Immigrants of the Vietnamese Dynasties).” Khảo cổ tập san (Archelogical Journal) 8: 140–75.
Roetz, Heiner. 2013. “Chinese ‘Unity of Man and Nature’: Reality or Myth?” In Nature, Environment and Culture in East Asia, edited by Carmen Meinert, 23–39. Leiden-Boston: Brill.
Shui, Zhenjian 稅貞建. 2015. “Faguo zhimin tongzhi xia Yuenan Ruxue jiaoyu de shanbian yu zhongjie 法國殖民統治下越南儒學教育的嬗變與終結 (The Evolution and End of Confucian Education in Vietnam under French Colonial Rule).” Changjiang Daxue xuebao 長江大學學報 (Journal of Yangtze University) 38 (7): 84–6.
Sun, Hongnian 孙宏年. 2014. Qingdai Zhong Yue guanxi yanjiu, 1644–1885 清代中越关系研究: 1644–1885 (Study on the Sino-Vietnamese Relation during the Qing Dynasty, 1644–1885). Heilongjiang Jiaoyu chubanshe (黑龙江教育出版社 Heilongjiang Publishing House).
Taylor, Keith W. 1976. “The Rise of Đại Việt and the Establishment of Thăng-long.” In Explorations in the Early Southeast Asian History: The Origins of Southeast Asian Statecraft, edited by Kenneth R. Hall, and John K. Whitmore, 149–81. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
——. 1986. “Authority and Legitimacy in Eleventh-Century Vietnam.” In Southeast Asia in the 9th to14th Centuries, edited by D. B. Marr, and A.C. Milner, 139–76. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies; Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies.
——. 1993. “Nguyen Hoang and the Beginning of Vietnam’s Southward Expansion.” Southeast Asia in the Early Modern Era, edited by Anthony Reid, 41–66. Ithaca, London: Cornell University Press.
——. 2002. “Vietnamese Confucian Narratives.” In Rethinking Confucianism: Past and Present in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, edited by Benjamin A. Elman, John B. Duncan, and Herman Ooms, 337–69. Los Angeles: UCLA Asian Pacific Monograph Series.
Taylor, Rodney L. 1990. The Religious Dimensions of Confucianism. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Trần, Ngọc Thêm. 2006. Tìm về bản sắc văn hóa Việt Nam (Discovering Vietnamese Cultural Identity). Hochiminh City: Nxb Tổng hợp.
——. 2013. Văn hóa người Việt vùng Tây Nam Bộ (The Culture of the Vietnamese in the Mekong River Delta). Hochiminh City: Nxb Văn hóa Văn nghệ.
Trần, Trọng Kim. 1958. Việt Nam sử lược (A Brief History of Vietnam). Saigon: Tân-Việt.
——. 1960. Vương Dương Minh và cái học trí lương tri (Wang Yangming and the Studies of Supreme Conscience). Saigon: Tân-Việt.
——. 2003. Nho giáo (Confucianism). Hanoi: Nxb Văn học.
Trần, Văn Giàu. 1973. Sự phát triển của tư tưởng ở Việt Nam từ thế kỷ XIX đến Cách mạng Tháng Tám (The Development of Thought in Vietnam from the Nineteenth Century to the August Revolution), vol. 1. Hanoi: Nxb. Khoa học Xã hội.
——. 1975. Sự phát triển của tư tưởng ở Việt Nam từ thế kỷ XIX đến Cách mạng Tháng Tám (The Development of Thought in Vietnam from the Nineteenth Century to the August Revolution), vol. 2. Hanoi: Nxb. Khoa học Xã hội.
Trịnh, Hoài Đức. (1820s) 2005. Gia Định Thành thông chí (Gazetteer of Gia Định Citadel). Translated by Lý Việt Dũng. Đồng Nai: NXB Tổng hợp Đồng Nai.
Trương, Tửu. 1950. Kinh Thi Việt Nam (Vietnamese Classical Odes). Saigon: Liên Hiệp.
Tsai, Maw-kuey. 1968. Les Chinois au Sud-Vietnam. Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale.
Tu, Wei-ming. 1986. “Toward a Third Epoch of Confucian Humanism: A Background Understanding.” In Confucianism: The Dynamics of Tradition, edited by Irene Eber, 3–21. New York: Macmillan.
——. 2008. “Sociality, Individuality and Anthropocosmic Vision in Confucian Humanism.” In Polishing the Chinese Mirror: Essays in Honor of Henry Rosemont, Jr, edited by Marthe Chandler, and Ronnie Littlejohn, 145–59. New York: Global Scholarly Publications.
Tu, Weiming, Milan Hejtmanek, and Alan Wachman. 1992. The Confucian World Observed: Contemporary Discussion of Confucian Humanism in East Asia. Honolulu, Hawaii: East-West Center.
Wang, Wu 王武. 2005. “Lun Yuenan zhishifenzi de Ruxuehua 論越南知識分子的儒學化 (Study on the Confucianization of Vietnamese Literati).” Pingdingshan xueyuan xuebao 平頂山學院學報 (Journal of Pingdingshan University) 20: 53–5.
Watson, James. 1985. “Standardizing the Gods: The Promotion of Tien’hou (“Empress of Heaven”) along the South China Coast, 960–1960.” In Popular Culture in Late Imperial China, edited by Andrew J. Nathan Johnson, and Evelyn S. Rawski, 292–324. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wheeler, Charles. 2015. “Interests, Institutions, and Identity: Strategic Adaptation and the Ethno-Evolution of Minh Huong (Central Vietnam), 16th–19th Centuries.” Itinerario 39 (1): 141–66.
Wolters, Oliver W. 1996. “What Else May Ngo Si Lien Mean? A Matter of Distinctions in the Fifteenth Century.” In Sojourners and Settlers: Histories of Southeast Asia and the Chinese, edited by Anthony Reid, and Kristine Alilunas Rodgers, 94–114. St. Leonards NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Woodside, Alexander. 1998a. “Territorial Order and Collective Identity Tensions in Confucian Asia: China, Vietnam, Korea.” Daedalus 127 (3):191–220.
——. 1998b. “Freedom and Elite Political Theory in Vietnam before the French.” In Asian Freedoms: The Idea of Freedom in East and Southeast Asia, edited by David Kelly, and Anthony Reid, 205–24. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
——. 2002. “Classical Primordialism and the Historial Agendas of Vietnamese Confucianism.” In Rethinking Confucianism: Past and Present in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, edited by Benjamin A. Elman, John B. Duncan, and Herman Ooms, 116–43. Los Angeles: UCLA Asian Pacific Monograph Series.
Xu, Yiling 許怡齡. 2018. “Cong Dongya shiye lun ‘xingli daquan’ de yiyi: yi Hanguo yu Yuenan de liuchuan bijiao wei zhongxin 從東亞視野論《性理大全》的意義：以韓國與越南的流傳比較為中心 (The Complete Collection of Neo-Confucianism in East Asia: A Chosun-Vietnam Comparison).” Zhongzheng Hanxue yanjiu 中正漢學研究 (Zhongzheng Sinology Research) 2: 35–64.
Yu, Insun. 1978. “Law and Family in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Vietnam.” PhD diss., University of Michigan.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Tho Ngoc Nguyen, Phong Thanh Nguyen
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors are confirming that they are the authors of the submitting article, which will be published (print and online) in journal Asian Studies by Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, Aškerčeva 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia). Author’s name will be evident in the article in journal. All decisions regarding layout and distribution of the work are in hands of the publisher.
- Authors guarantee that the work is their own original creation and does not infringe any statutory or common-law copyright or any proprietary right of any third party. In case of claims by third parties, authors commit their self to defend the interests of the publisher, and shall cover any potential costs.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.