Image and Role of the Queen Mother of the West in Han Grave Art
The present article is a detailed study of the image of an ancient Chinese goddess, The Queen Mother of the West, called Xiwangmu 西王母 in Chinese. In the mythological tradition, Xiwangmu is a goddess who possesses the elixir of immortality and dwells in the western paradise, on the magic mountain Kunlun 崑崙. While her image can be found in mural paintings, and on lacquered objects and bronze mirrors, it appears primarily in the form of relief images on the stones and bricks of grave chambers and temples in the Han (206 BCE–220 CE) grave complexes. The literary tradition reveals a multifunctional role of the mother, with her many attributes developing in accordance with the changing values of social and mythological concepts. The article concludes with a detailed discussion of her image and role within the wider cosmological context of Han grave art.
Chen, Changyuan 陈昌远. 1986. “Guanyu Luoyang Xihan Bu Qianqiu mushi bihua de ji ge wenti 关于洛阳西汉卜千秋墓室壁画的几个问题.” Zhongyuan wenwu, posebna izdaja, 136–41.
Chen, Meidong 陈美东. 2003. Zhonguo kexue jishu shi: Tianwenxue 中国科学技 术史: 天文学. Beijing: Kexue chuban she.
He, Xilin 贺西林. 2002. Gumu danqing: Handai mushi bihua de faxian yu yanjiu 古墓丹青: 汉代墓室壁画的发现与研究. Xi’an: Shanxi renmin meishu chuban she.
Hanshu 漢書. 2002. [Han] Ban Gu, [Tang] Yan Shigu (kom.) [漢] 班固, [唐] 顔師. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.
Hayashi, Minao 林巳奈夫. 1999. “Dui Luoyang Bu Qianqiu mu bihua de zhushi 对洛阳卜千秋墓壁画的注释.” Huaxia kaogu 4: 90–106.
Huainanzi jishi 淮南子集釋. 1998. Uredil He Ning. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.
Huang, Minglan 黄明兰. Yinqiang Guo 郭引强. 1996. Luoyang Han mu bihua 洛阳汉墓壁画. Beijing: Wenwu chuban she.
Jean, M. James. 1997. “Handai Xiwangmu de tuxiangzhi yanjiu (xia) 汉代西王母的图像志研究(下).” Meishu yanjiu 3: 75–79.
Loewe, Michael. 1994. Chinese Ideas of Life and Death: Faith, Myth and Reason in the Han period (202 BC–AD 220). Taipei: SMC Publishing INC.
Loewe, Michael. 1979. Ways to paradise: The Chinese Quest for Immortality. London: George Allen & Unwin.
Lü shi Chunqiu 呂氏春秋. 1996. Zbirka: Zhu zi jicheng 諸子集成. Vol. 6. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju chuban.
Shanhaijing jiaoyi 山海經校譯. 1995. Yuan Ke (kom.), Shanghai: Shanghai guji chuban she.
Shiji 史記, uredil Xiao Feng. 2000. Beijing: Yanbian renmin chuban she.
Sun, Sheng 孙生. 1995. “Tianzi · Baiguan · Xiwangmu – Handai shenxian xiaoshuo Xiwangmu xingxiang xianhua yuanyin tanxi 天子 · 稗官 · 西王母 – 汉代神仙小说 西王母形象仙化原因探析.” Xibei minzu xueyuan xuebao (zhexue shehui kexue ban) 2: 100–4.
Sun, Zuoyun 孙作云. 1977. “Luoyang Xihan bihuamu zhong de nuoyi tu – dagui mixin, dagui tu de jieji fenxi 洛阳西汉壁画墓中的傩议图 – 打鬼迷信, 打鬼图的阶级分析.” Zhengzhou daxue xuebao (sheke ban) 4: 118–25.
Wang, Jianzhong 王建中. 2001. Handai huaxiangshi tonglun 汉代画像石通论. Beijing: Zijincheng chuban she.
Wu, Hung. 1989. The Wu Liang Shrine: The Ideology of Early Chinese Pictorial Art. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Xin, Lixiang 信立祥. 2000. Handai huaxiangshi zonghe yanjiu 汉代画像石综合 研究. Beijing: Wenwu chuban she.
Zhuangzi jinzhu jinyi 莊子今注今譯. 2001. Chen Guying (kom.), 1., 2. in 3. del. Zbirka: Zhongguo gudian mingzhu yizhu congshu 中國古典名著譯注叢書. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.
Copyright (c) 2016 Nataša Vampelj Suhadolnik
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors are confirming that they are the authors of the submitting article, which will be published (print and online) in journal Asian Studies by Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, Aškerčeva 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia). Author’s name will be evident in the article in journal. All decisions regarding layout and distribution of the work are in hands of the publisher.
- Authors guarantee that the work is their own original creation and does not infringe any statutory or common-law copyright or any proprietary right of any third party. In case of claims by third parties, authors commit their self to defend the interests of the publisher, and shall cover any potential costs.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.