Shaping Darkness in hyakki yagyō emaki
In Japanese culture, the yōkai, the numinous creatures inhabiting the other world and, sometimes, the boundary between our world and the other, are obvious manifestations of the feeling of fear, “translated” into text and image. Among the numerous emaki in which the yōkai appear, there is a specific type, called hyakki yagyō (the night parade of one hundred demons), where all sorts and sizes of monsters flock together to enjoy themselves at night, but, in the end, are scattered away by the first beams of light or by the mysterious darani no hi, the fire produced by a powerful magical invocation, used in the Buddhist sect Shingon. The nexus of this emakimono is their great number, hyakki, (one hundred demons being a generic term which encompasses a large variety of yōkai and oni) as well as the night––the very time when darkness becomes flesh and blood and starts marching on the streets.
Emakimono Data Base. Accessed April 2, 2015. http://kikyo.nichibun.ac.jp/emakimono/ detail.php.
E-Museum. Accessed April 2, 2015. http://www.emuseum.jp/detail/100284/000/000?mode =detail &d_lang=en&s_lang=en&class=&title=&c_e=®ion=&era=¢ury= &cptype=&owner=&pos=145&num=1.
Foster, Michael Dylan. 2009. Pandemonium and Parade. Berkeley: University of California Press.
––––. 2015. The Book of Yōkai. Oakland: University of California Press.
Ikeda, Hiroko. 1971. The Type-Motif Index of Japanese Folk Literature. No. 209. Helsinki: Folklore Fellow Communications.
Kagawa, Masanobu. 2009. “Nichibunken-bon no ‘Hyakki yagyō no zu’ no hakken 日文研本の「百鬼夜行の図」の発見 (Discovering the ‘Illustrated Night Parade of One Hundred Demons’ in the International Center for Japanese Studies).” Ningen Bunka (Human Culture) 10: 43–46.
Kimbrough, Keller, 2005. “Reading the Miraculous Powers of Japanese Poetry. Spells, Truth Acts, and a Medieval Buddhist Poetics of the Supernatural.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 32(1): 1–33.
Komatsu, Kazuhiko. 1999. Oni ga tsukutta kuni – Nihon 鬼がつくった国・日本 (Japan, A Country Created by Oni). Tokyo: Kobunsha.
–––. 2003. Ikai to nihonjin 異界と日本人 (The Other World and the Japanese). Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten.
–––. 2008. Hyakki yagyō emaki no nazo 百鬼夜行絵巻の謎 (The Puzzle of the Painted Scroll of the Night Parade of One Hundred Demons). Tokyo: Shūeisha.
–––. 2009. “Hyakki yagyō emaki tanjō no nazo o toku 百鬼夜行絵巻誕生の謎を解く (Solving the Puzzle of the Creation of the Painted Scroll of the Night Parade of One Hundred Demons).” Ningen Bunka 人間文化 (Human Culture) 10: 4–17.
–––, ed. 2010. Yōkai emaki – Nihon no ikai o nozoku 妖怪絵巻・日本の異界を覗く (The Yōkai Painted Scrolls – A Glimpse of the Japanese Other World). Tokyo: Bonjinsha.
Komatsu, Kazuhiko et al. 2009. “Hyakki yagyō no sekai 百鬼夜行の世界 – panel discussion (The World of the Night Parade of One Hundred Demons: panel discussion).” Ningen Bunka 人間文化 (Human Culture) 10: 50–62.
Kondo, Yoshihiro. 1966. Nihon no oni: Nihon bunka tankyū no shikaku 日本の鬼 日本文化探求の視角 (Japanese Oni Perspectives on the Search for Japanese Culture). Tokyo: Ofusha.
Lillehoj, Elizabeth. 1995. “Transfiguration: Man-Made Objects as Demons in Japanese Scroll.” Asian Folklore Studies 54 (1): 7–34.
McCullough, Hellen Craig, trans. 1980. Ōkagami, the Great Mirror: Fujiwara Michinaga (966–1027) and His Times. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Reider, Noriko. 2003. “Transformation of the Oni, From the Frightening and Diabolical to the Cute and Sexy.” Asian Folklore Studies 62(1):133–57.
––––. 2010. Japanese Demon Lore: Oni, from Ancient Times to the Present. Utah: Utah State University Press.
Tokuda, Kazuo. 2009. “Yōkai no kōshin 妖怪の行進 (The Procession of Yōkai).” Ningen Bunka 人間文化 (Human Culture) 10: 24–31
Wakasugi, Junji. 2009. “Bijutsu-shi no tachiba kara ‘igyō irui’ to ‘gyōretsu’ o kīwādo ni 美術史の立場から－「異形異類」と「行列」をキ－ワ－ドに (The Keywords of ‘Grotesque/Monstrous’ and ‘The Parade’: A History of Art Approach).” Ningen Bunka 人間文化 (Human Culture) 10: 18–23.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors are confirming that they are the authors of the submitting article, which will be published (print and online) in journal Asian Studies by Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, Aškerčeva 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia). Author’s name will be evident in the article in journal. All decisions regarding layout and distribution of the work are in hands of the publisher.
- Authors guarantee that the work is their own original creation and does not infringe any statutory or common-law copyright or any proprietary right of any third party. In case of claims by third parties, authors commit their self to defend the interests of the publisher, and shall cover any potential costs.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.