Razvojno zaostajanje Podsaharske Afrike

  • Katja Vintar Mally Univerza v Ljubljani, Filozofska fakulteta
Ključne besede: Podsaharska Afrika, države v razvoju, razvojni cilji tisočletja, regionalna geografija

Povzetek

Sub-Saharan Africa is a very diverse region with extensive natural wealth, great human potential, and a rich history. However, the majority of its countries are among the poorest in the world and about half of its 800 million inhabitants live in extreme poverty. Sub-Saharan Africa produces only 1.5% of the world’s GDP and its share in world trade has fallen from 6% in 1980 to 2% today. The region’s exports remain dominated by primary goods (fuels, ores, and agricultural products). The roots of the region’s economic weakness lie variously in the past colonial relationships with European countries and in unjust global trade patterns as well as in misuse of power by ruling political elites in the post-independence era. Numerous civil wars and other conflicts have fragmented the sub-Saharan countries into many factions and parties fighting for domination. The region is lagging behind developed countries because of corruption, lack of infrastructure, weakness of its institutions, heavy indebtedness, lack of education and health services, and unfavorable natural conditions, among other factors. Subsistence agriculture is the source of livelihood for most Africans. Nevertheless, average yields per hectare are low and heavily dependent on climatic conditions. Compared to urban areas (except for slums), people living in rural areas have worse infrastructure and are further from achieving the UN’s Millennium Development Goals. The recent increase in food prices is threatening the limited progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition (28% of children under age five are underweight and particularly vulnerable to infectious diseases). Little progress has been made in reducing child and maternal mortality; mortality rates remain the highest in the world. In the previous decade, life expectancy in sub-Saharan countries has fallen due to the spread of HIV/AIDS and it still remains below fifty. In addition, many negative socioeconomic effects are the result of malaria, which kills approximately one million people every year, 91% of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to promote gender equality and empower women, education is of vital importance. Compared to other (especially developed) regions, school enrollment rates are considerably lower and dropout rates considerably higher, particularly for girls. The majority of countries in subSaharan Africa will not be able to achieve their educational goals by 2015. Despite the fact that the region is not exceeding the carrying capacities of its environment (as measured by its ecological footprint), environmental problems in some areas are severe. Deforestation, desertification, coral bleaching, negative effects of climate changes (sea level rise, reduced freshwater availability, extreme weather events, etc.), loss of biodiversity, and soil degradation are the most worrying. Population growth is exacerbating these environmental problems and is making it more difficult to achieve a higher standard of living for all. Owing to the complexity of developmental problems, sub-Saharan Africa will have to use its own resources very wisely and make the most of development aid from developed countries.

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Življenjepis avtorja

Katja Vintar Mally, Univerza v Ljubljani, Filozofska fakulteta
Katja Vintar Mally je od leta 2001 zaposlena na Oddelku za geografijo Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani. Od leta 2007 je nosilka predme tov Geografija Azije in Geografija Afrike, sodeluje pa tudi pri predmetih s področja varstva geografskega okolja. Znanstveno-raziskovalno se ukvarja z globalnimi in regionalnimi vidiki varstva okolja, z vprašanji napredka v državah v razvoju in s trajnostnim razvojem, s poudarkom na kazalnikih za njegovo spremljanje.
Objavljeno
2009-12-31
Kako citirati
Vintar Mally, K. (2009). Razvojno zaostajanje Podsaharske Afrike. Ars & Humanitas, 3(1-2), 10-27. https://doi.org/10.4312/ars.3.1-2.10-27