Contextual factors and language: an analysis of order placements from a Japanese crowdsourcing website
Keywords:crowdsourcing, order placement, orderer, subcontractor, Japanese
Business documents, like other communications, are created in specific social context to achieve various specific social goals. This study examines relationship between the linguistic characteristics of order placements on Japanese dedicated crowdsourcing website and their context of situation, focusing on the power relations between the orderer and the subcontractor. As for the relationship between the orderer and the subcontractor, qualitative analysis of data shows that it is the orderer who is overwhelmingly powerful in this relationship. This imbalance seems to be reflected in the linguistic characteristics of order placements, such as choices made in the system of grammar, and in the quality of information in the sense of Grice’s maxims of conversation.
Anonymous. (2019, Dec. 6). “Hataraki-kata kaikaku no shikaku”: kyodai IT ni ‘ko’ kusen - Ūbā-ītsu haitatsu-in dankō monzenbarai [“Blind Spot of Work Style Reform”: Difficult struggle of ‘individuals’ against giant IT - collective bargaining turned away]. Tokyo Shinbun morning edition. Retrieved Jan. 3, 2020, from https://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/economics/list/ 201912/CK2019120602000124.html
Anonymous. (2019, Nov. 17). Netto tanpatsu rōdō jiyū to fuan to [One-off internet work: freedom and anxiety]. Asahi Shinbun morning edition, p.4.
Bourdieu, P. (1991). Language and symbolic power. In J. B. Thompson (Ed.), Gino Raymond and Matthew Adamson (transl.). Cambridge: Polity Press.
Chomsky, N. (1993). Year 501: The conquest continues. London: Verso.
CrowdWorks crowdsourcing. https://crowdworks.jp/public/, last accessed 30 December 2019.
Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and power. London: Longman.
Fairclough, N. (2003). Analysing discourse: Textual analysis for social research. London: Routledge.
Grice, H. P. (1975). Logic and conversation. In P. Cole and J. Morgan (Eds.), Syntax and semantics 3: Speech acts, pp. 41-58. New York: Academic Press.
Halliday, M. A. K. (1978). Language as social semiotic: The social interpretation of language and meaning. London: Edward Arnold.
Halliday, M.A.K. (2009). Essential Halliday. London: Continuum.
Hart, C. (2016). Discourse, grammar and ideology: functional and cognitive perspectives. London: Bloomsbury.
Hasan, R. (2009). The place of context in a systemic functional model. In M.A.K. Halliday and J. J. Webster (Eds.), Continuum Companion to Systemic Functional Linguistics, pp. 166-189. New York: Continuum.
Irwin, N. (2019, Sep. 15). Maybe We’re Not All Going to Be Gig Economy Workers After All: Companies like Uber are hitting the turbulence of government regulation, worker resistance and labor market reality. New York Times. Retrieved Jan. 3, 2020, from, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/15/upshot/gig-economy-limits-labor-market-uber-california.html
Ishiguro, K. (2017). Bunshō to wa nani ka - nihongo no hyōgen-men kara mita yoi bunshō [What is a sentence: A good sentence from the viewpoint of Japanese expression]. In Lee J.H. (Ed.), Bunshō o kagakusuru [Science of Writing] pp.14-37. Tokyo: Hituzi Syobo,.
Ishiguro, K. et al. (2018). Kuraudosōshingu o mochiita bijinesu hatchū bunsho no shitsuteki bunseki shiron [An Essay on Qualitative Analysis of Business Ordering Placemets Using Crowdsourcing]. Proceedings of the 2018 Autumn Meeting of the Japanese Language Education Society, pp. 29-38.
Mizuno T. (2015). Kuraudosōshingu wa shitsugyōmondai o kaiketsu dekiru ka [Can crowdsourcing solve unemployment?]. National Institute of Informatics - NII Today, No. 70, pp.12. Retreived December 30, 2019, from https://www.nii.ac.jp/about/publication/today/70-5.html
Muthoo, A. (1999). Bargaining theory with applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tamura S. (2014). Kuraudosōshingu no hōritsu mondai (3) Mi wo mamoru tame ni [Legal problems with crowdsourcing (3) In order to protect oneself]. Retreived June 17, 2019, from http://ashitaba-tam.hatenablog.com/entry/2014/04/26/013829
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Andrej BEKEŠ
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors are confirming that they are the authors of the submitting article, which will be published online in journal Acta Linguistica Asiatica by Ljubljana University Press, Faculty of Arts (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, Aškerčeva 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia). Author’s name will be evident in the article in journal. All decisions regarding layout and distribution of the work are in hands of the publisher.
- Authors guarantee that the work is their own original creation and does not infringe any statutory or common-law copyright or any proprietary right of any third party. In case of claims by third parties, authors commit their self to defend the interests of the publisher, and shall cover any potential costs.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.