An Analysis of Simplification Strategies in a Reading Textbook of Japanese as a Foreign Language

  • Kristina HMELJAK SANGAWA University of Ljubljana
Keywords: readability, simplification, Japanese as a foreign language, textbook analysis, reading

Abstract

Reading is one of the bases of second language learning, and it can be most effective when the linguistic difficulty of the text matches the reader's level of language proficiency. The present paper reviews previous research on the readability and simplification of Japanese texts, and presents an analysis of a collection of simplified texts for learners of Japanese as a foreign language. The simplified texts are compared to their original versions to uncover different strategies used to make the texts more accessible to learners. The list of strategies thus obtained can serve as useful guidelines for assessing, selecting, and devising texts for learners of Japanese as a foreign language.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

DuBay, W. H. (2004). The principles of readability. Costa Mesa, California: Impact Information.

Halliday, M. A. K. (1993). Some grammatical problems in scientific English. In Writing Science: Literacy and Discursive Power, Pittsburgh, 1993 (pp. 69-85). University of Pittsburgh Press.

Hayashi, Y. (1992). A Three-level Revision Model for Improving Japanese Bad-styled Expressions. In COLING 1992 Volume 2: The 15th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (pp. 665-671).

Honda, K. [本田勝一] (1982). Nihongo no sakubun gijutu 日本語の作文技術 [Japanese writing techniques]. Tokyo: Asahi shimbun 朝日新聞.

Ichikawa, A. [市川熹] (2006). Fukushi jouhou gaku towa nanika 福祉情報学とは何か. Gekkan gengo 月刊言語, 35(7), 26-34.

Inui, K. [乾健太郎] & Fujita, A. [藤田篤] (2004). Iikae gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyuu doukou 言い換え技術に関する研究動向 [Paraphrase research trends]. Shizen gengo shori 自然言語処理, 11(5), 151-198.

Inui, H. [乾裕子] & Okada, N. [岡田直之] (2000). Nagai bun wa tsune ni wakarinikui ka? Wakarinikusa no youin to sono izon kankei - Is a long sentence always incomprehensible? A structural analysis of readability factors 長い文は常にわかりにくいか? : わかりにくさの要因とその依存関係. NL SIG Technical reports情報処理学会研究報告自然言語処理, 2000(11), 63-70. [http://id.nii.ac.jp/1001/00048682/]

Inui, K. & Satomi, Y. (2001). Corpus-based acquisition of sentence readability ranking models for deaf people. In Natural Language Processing Pacific Rim Symposium Tokyo (pp. 205-212).

Japan Foundation [国際交流基金] & Association of International Education Japan [日本国際教育協会] (2004). Nihongo nouryoku shiken shutsudai kijun - Japanese language proficiency test : test content specifications 日本語能力試験出題基準. Tokyo: Bonjinsha 凡人社.

Kabashima, S. [樺島忠雄] (1979). Bunshou sahou jiten 文章作法事典. Tokyo: 東京堂Tokyodo.

Kinoshita, K. [木下是雄] (1981). Rikakei no sakubun gijutsu 理科系の作文技術. Tokyo: Chuokoron shinsha 中央公論新社.

Koide, K. [小出慶一] (1991). Nihongo o manabu hitotachi no tame no Nihongo o tanoshiku yomu hon - Enjoyable Task Reading in Japanese 日本語を学ぶ人たちのための日本語を楽しく読む本. Tokyo: Sanno University International Student Center 産能短期大学国際交流センター.

Lee, J.-H. & Hasebe, Y. (2016). Readability measurement for Japanese text based on leveled corpora. In Papers on Japanese Language from an Empirical Perspective, Ljubljana: Academic Publishing Division of the Faculty of Arts, Univ. of Ljubljana.

Matsumoto, S. (2010). JDiff X Document Comparison Plug-in for Jedit X. [http://www.artman21.com/en/jdiff_x/].

Mishima, H. [三島浩] (1990). Gijutsusha, gakusei no tame no technical writing 技術者・学生のためのテクニカル・ライティング. Tokyo: Kyouristu shuppan 共立出版.

Morioka, K. [森岡健二] (1952). Yomiyasusa no kiso kenkyuu「読みやすさ」の基礎的研究. In Kokuritsu kokugo kenkyuujo nenpou - Annual report of National Language Research Institute 国立国語研究所年報 (pp. 91-108).

Nakano, T. [中野智子], Endo, A. [遠藤淳], Sugawara Sh. [菅原昌平], Inui, K. [乾健太郎], & Fujita, A. [藤田篤] (2005). Lexical Paraphrasing for Improving Accessibility to the Web - Webサイトへのアクセシビリティ向上を目的とした難語の平易化. IEICE technical report Welfare Information technology 電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 WIT 福祉情報工学 25(25), 11-14.

Ono, T. [小野貴博], Suganuma, A. [菅沼明], & Taniguchi, R. [谷口倫一郎] (2006). Nihongo bunshou suikou shien ni okeru kakariuke o gokai sareru bun no chuushutsu - Extraction of the sentences whose modification relation is misunderstood for a writing tool 日本語文章推敲支援における係り受けを誤解される文の抽出. IPSJ SIG technical reports 情報処理学会研究報告 FI 情報学基礎, 2006(94), 99-104.

Oono, H. [大野博之] & Inazumi, H. [稲積宏誠] (2007). - Development of an education support tool for improvement of ability for sentence making 技術文章作成能力の育成を目指した教育支援ツールの開発. In 電子情報通信学会 第18回データ工学ワークショップ論文集 - DEWS2007.

Sakamoto, I. [阪本一郎] (1962). Bunshou no goi hijuu no sateihou - Readability no kenkyuu no kokoromi 文章の語彙比重の査定法---Readabilityの研究の試み---. Dokusho kagaku 読書科学, 6(1), 37-44.

Sano, M. & Maruyama, T. (2008). Lexical Density in Japanese Texts: classifying text samples in the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese (BCCWJ). In Proceedings of ISFC 35: Voices Around the World, Sydney, 2008 (pp. 359-364).

Sato, S., Utsuro, T., Tsuchiya, M., Asaoka, M., & Matsuhoshi, S. (2004). Natural Language Processing Technologies to Enhance Readability. In Proc. of International Conference on Informatics Research for Development of Knowledge Society Infrastructure (pp. 46-53).

Sato, S., Matsuyoshi, S., & Kondoh, Y. (2008). Automatic Assessment of Japanese Text Readability Based on a Textbook Corpus. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08), Marrakech, Morocco, 2008.

Shibasaki, H. [柴崎秀子] & Tamaoka, K. [玉岡賀津雄] (2010). 国語教科書を基にした小・中学校の文章難易学年判定式の構築 - Constructing a formula to predict school grades 1-9 based on Japanese language school textbooks. Nihongo kyouiku kougakukai rombunshi - Japan journal of educational technology日本教育工学会論文誌, 33(4), 449-458.

Tateisi, Y., Ono, Y., & Yamada, H. (1988). A computer readability formula of Japanese texts for machine scoring. In Proceedings of the 12th conference on Computational linguistics (pp. 649--654). Association for Computational Linguistics.

Yamamoto, S. [山本聡美], Inui, K. [乾健太郎], Nogami, M. [野上優], Fujita, A. [藤田篤], & Inui, H. [乾裕子] (2000). 聾者向け文章読解支援のための文可読性基準の調査 - Exploring the Readability Criteria for Congenitally Deaf People: A Step toward Computer-Aided Text Reading. IPSJ SIG technical reports 情報処理学会研究報告 NL 自然言語処理, 135(17), 127-134.

Yasumoto, B. [安本美典] (1983). Settoku no bunshô gijutsu [Techniques of persuasive writing] 説得の文章技術. Tokyo: Kôdansha 講談社.
Published
2016-06-29
How to Cite
HMELJAK SANGAWA, K. (2016). An Analysis of Simplification Strategies in a Reading Textbook of Japanese as a Foreign Language. Acta Linguistica Asiatica, 6(1), 9-33. https://doi.org/10.4312/ala.6.1.9-33
Section
Research Articles