Deriving and Interpreting Ka(karimusubi) in Premodern Japanese
Keywords:Old Japanese, syntax-semantics of focus, particles
AbstractThis paper provides a new syntax and semantics for kakarimusubi (KM), a focus construction prominent in the grammar of Old Japanese (OJ) and Early Middle (Classical) Japanese (CJ), which diachronically developed into the interrogative construction in Modern Japanese (MdJ) headed by the ka particle. Adopting Chierchia & Caponigro’s (2013) novel analysis of Free Relatives (FRs) as embedded interrogatives, an FR-based analysis of KM is proposed so as to obtain a compositional semantic analysis of this focus construction as well as an account of the adnominal marking of the presuppositional musubi component of this grammatical construction.
Aldridge, E. (2009). Short wh-movement in Old Japanese. In Iwasaki, S., Hoji, H., Clancy, P., and Sohn, S., editors, Japanese/Korean Linguistics, volume 17, pages 549–563. Stanford, CA: CSLI.
Caponigro, I. (2003). Free Not to Ask: On the Semantics of Free Relatives and Wh-Words Cross-linguistically. PhD thesis, UCLA.
Caponigro, I. (2004). The semantic contribution of Wh-words and type shifts: Evidence from free relatives crosslinguistically. In Young, R. B., editor, Proceedings of SALT 14, pages 38–55. Ithaca, NY: CLC Pub- lications, Cornell University.
Cecchetto, C. and Donati, C. (2010). On labeling: Principle C and head movement. Syntax, 13(3):241–278.
Chierchia, G. (2013). Logic in Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chierchia, G. and Caponigro, I. (2013). Questions on questions and free relatives. Paper presented at Sinn und Bedeutung 18. Handout accessible at <http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/chierchia/files/frs_and_qs_ iii_--.pdf.>
Chomsky, N. (1995). The Minimalist Program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Dayal, V. (1996). Locality in Wh-Quantification: Questions and Relative Clauses in Hindi. Dordrecht, Kluwer.
Delin, J. (1992). Properties of it-cleft presupposition. Journal of Semantics, 9:179–196.
Erteschik-Shir, N. (1986). Wh-questions and focus. Linguistics and Philosophy, 9(2):117–149.
Frellesvig, B. (2010). A History of the Japanese language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Frellesvig, B., Horn, S. W., Russell, K. L., and Sells, P. (2014). The Oxford Corpus of Old Japanese. Electronic publication, accessible at http://vsarpj. orinst.ox.ac.uk/corpus.
Groenendijk, J. and Stokhof, M. (1983). Studies in the semantics of questions and the pragmatics of answers. PhD thesis, University of Amsterdam.
Ikeda, T. (1975). Classical Japanese Grammar Illustrated with Texts. Tokyo: Tōhō Gakkai.
Kartunnen, L. (1977). Syntax and semantics of questions. Linguistics and Philosophy, 1:1–44.
Kayne, R. (1994). The Antisymmetry of Syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Kinuhata, T. and Iwata., M. (2009). かの多様性を追手 [Ka no tayosei o otte/pursuing the diversity of ka]. Ms. Osaka University.
McGinnis, M. (1999). Evidence for feature-driven A-scrambling. In Bird, S., Carnie, A., Haugen, J., and Norquest, P., editors, WCCFL 18 Proceedings, pages 364–378. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Mitrović, M. (2014). Morphosyntactic atoms of propositional logic: a philo-logical programme. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge.
Miyagawa, S. (2001). The EPP, scrambling, and Wh-in-situ. In Kenstowicz, M., editor, Ken Hale: A Life in Language, pages 293–338. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Miyagawa, S. (2003). A-movement scrambling and options without optionality. In Karimi, S., editor, Word Order and Scrambling, pages 177–200. Oxford: Blackwell.
Miyagawa, S. (2005). EPP and semantically vacuous scrambling. In Sabel, J. and Saito, M., editors, The Free Word Order Phenomenon, pages 181–220. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Nomura, T. (1993a). Jōdaigo no no to ga nitsuite (ge). Kokugo Kokubun, 62(703):30–49.
Nomura, T. (1993b). Jōdaigo no no to ga nitsuite (jō). Kokugo Kokubun, 62(702):1–17.
Okimori, T. (1989). 日本語史 [Nihongoshi]. Tokyo: Ōfūsha.
Rizzi, L. (1997). The fine structure of the left periphery. In Haegman, L., editor, Elements of Grammar, pages 281–337. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Partee, B. (1987). Noun Phrase Interpretation and Type-Shifting Principles. In J. Groenendijk, D. de Jongh and M. Stokhof, editors, Studies in Discourse Representation Theory and the Theory of Generalized Quantifiers, pages 115–144. Dordrecht: D. Reidel
Serafim, L. A. and Shinzato, R. (2000). Reconstructing the proto-japonic kakari musubi, . . . ka . . . -(a)m-wo. 言語研究 [Gengo Kenkyu], 118:81–118.
Shimada, J. (2007). Head Movement, Binding Theory, and Phrase Structure. Unpublished monograph. MIT.
Takamiya, Y. (2005). 格助詞を伴わないカの間接疑問文について [kakujoshi o tomonawanai ka no kansetsu gimonbun ni tsuite. [on indirect questions of ka without case particles]]. 三 重 大 学 日 本 語 学 文 学 [Mie Daigaku Nihongogaku bungaku], 16:92–104.
Tokieda, M. (1954). 日 本 文 法, 文 語 篇 [Nihon bunpō, Bungo hen]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
Vovin, A. (2003). A Reference Grammar of Classical Japanese Prose. London: Routledge.
Watanabe, A. (2002). Loss of overt wh-movement in Old Japanese. In Lightfoot, D. W., editor, Syntactic Effects of Morphological Change, pages 179–195. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Watanabe, A. (2005). ミニマリストプログラム序: 生成文法のあらたな 挑戦 [Minimarisuto Puroguramu Josetsu: Seisei Bunpō no Aratana Chōsen]. Tokyo: Taishūkan.
Whitman, J. (1997). Kakarimusubi from a comparative perspective. In Sohn, H. and Haig, J., editors, Japanese/Korean Linguistics, volume 6, pages 161–178. Stanford, CA: CSLI.
Whitman, J. (2001). Kayne 1994: p. 143, fn. 3. In Alexandrova, G. M. and Arnaudova, O., editors, The Minimalist Parameter, Current issues in Linguistic Theory, pages 77–100. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Wrona, J. (2007). Non-movement and kakarimusubi. Paper presented at the 9th Annual International Conference of the Japan Society for Language Sciences.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2015 Moreno MITROVIĆ
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors are confirming that they are the authors of the submitting article, which will be published online in journal Acta Linguistica Asiatica by Ljubljana University Press, Faculty of Arts (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, Aškerčeva 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia). Author’s name will be evident in the article in journal. All decisions regarding layout and distribution of the work are in hands of the publisher.
- Authors guarantee that the work is their own original creation and does not infringe any statutory or common-law copyright or any proprietary right of any third party. In case of claims by third parties, authors commit their self to defend the interests of the publisher, and shall cover any potential costs.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.