Translation of Slang

The Catcher in the Rye by Salinger in Macedonian


  • Svetlana Jakimovska University “Goce Delcev” Štip, North Macedonia



The Catcher in the Rye, translation, slang, deformations, translation techniques


The object of analysis in this article is the Macedonian translation of Salinger’s novel The Catcher in the Rye. It is considered to be one of the most controversial novels of the last century due to the themes the author elaborates, but also due to the use of mid-twentieth-century slang then common to young Americans. For that reason, our study will be conducted through the prism of Berman’s theory of text deformation systems, and special attention will be paid to the destruction of vernacular networks and tendency towards ennoblement. We will also take into consideration Eco’s views on translation as an act of negotiation, being aware that when translating slang the translator is obliged to negotiate between domestication and foreignisation. In order to analyse the offered equivalents, we will also examine the use of different translation techniques and, in certain contexts, offer more appropriate solutions from a translatological point of view. The research will be done on phonological, lexical, idiomatic and syntactic levels. On a phonological level, we will examine the solutions offered for deletion of phonemes and word contraction. On a lexical level, the focus will be placed on the slang vocabulary, but the study will also include interjections, particles as well as the use of augmentatives and diminutives in the target text. We will also analyse different translation solutions offered for idioms and some specific syntactic structures. The analysis reveals both successful solutions and also, certain inadequacies, thus preparing the way for improved translations in the future.


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Primary sources


СЕЛИНЏЕР, Џером (2014) Ловец во ‘ржта Скопје: Арс Ламина.


SALINGER, Jerome Salinger (1991) The Catcher in the Rye. Boston : Little, Brown And Company.


Secondary sources


ЃУРКОВА -МИНОВА, Лилјана (2003) Стилистика на современиот македонски јазик Скопје: Магор.


BERMAN, Antoine (2000) “Translation and the Trials of the Foreign”, in: Lawrence Venuti (ed.), The Translation Studies Reader. London: Routledge. 284–297.

CRYSTAL, David (1997) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, Second Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

ECO, Umberto (2003) Dire presque la même chose. Paris: Bernard Grasset.

GRAHAM, Sarah (2007) J.D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye. London and New York: Routledge.

MOLINA, L./A. HURTADO (2002) “Translation Techniques Revisited: a Dynamic and Functionalist Approach”. In Meta. 47(4), pp.498–512. Montréal: Les Presses de l’Université de Montréal.

NIDA, Eugen/de Jan WAARD (1986) From One Language to Another: Functional Equivalence in Bible Translation. Nashville: Nelson.

VENUTI, Lawrence (2001) “Strategies of Translation”. Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, ed. Mona Baker. London and New York: Routledge.

VINAY, Jean Paul and DARBELNET, Jean (1977) Stylistique comparée du français et de l’anglais. Méthode de traduction. Paris: Didier.


Online resources




How to Cite

Jakimovska, S. (2020). Translation of Slang: The Catcher in the Rye by Salinger in Macedonian. Journal for Foreign Languages, 12(1), 43–56.