An Introduction to the Musical Activity of Reading-Rooms in Slovenia
AbstractThe Slovene musical activity during the years 1848 and 1872, while belonging to the extreme fringes of the Central European musical history of the 19th century, nevertheless shows a quite specific kind of transition into the early »Romanticism«. Its marked characteristic is to be seen in the reduction and retardation of individual forms and of stylistic underdevelopment. This was the period of reading-rooms, caught in time when its culture was existentially determining the emerging »small« nations within the Habsburg monarchy, and was that foundation on which nationally awakening speeches, talks, recitations, playing and singing in the Slovene language were gradually forming the awareness of belonging to the Slovene nation. This goal was being served also by the »functionalized« music, unsophisticated lieder, songs for four parts, and utiliterian choruses. Their authors were spurred on by patriotism, which at the beginning produced rather modest results (Flajšman, Vilhar, partly Kamilo Mašek), while the composers of the second reading-room circle (Nedvĕd, Gustav Ipavec, Jenko, Hajdrih) wholly or at least in part managed to wrest themselves from the bonds of diletantism, were more ambitious and musically already well informed. The purpose of the present discussion is, on the one hand, to enrich factual information with new data, and, on the other, to penetrate below this upper level of note-making and to perceive the network of historical, social, and musical development which would make it possible to more sharply draw the line between actual and relative belatedness. Although from the compositional-technical and the stylistic viewpoint Slovenia was still for a few decades behind the current European musical developments, this period of twenty-five years proved for the Slovene circumstances extremely important. It represented the transition from diletantism to professionalism and shaped the foundations for the process of a gradual emergence of Slovene autochthonous, national music.
Copyright (c) 1996 Nataša Cigoj Krstulović
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors are confirming that they are the authors of the submitting article, which will be published (print and online) in journal Musicological Annual by Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, Aškerčeva 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia). Author’s name will be evident in the article in journal. All decisions regarding layout and distribution of the work are in hands of the publisher.
- Authors guarantee that the work is their own original creation and does not infringe any statutory or common-law copyright or any proprietary right of any third party. In case of claims by third parties, authors commit their self to defend the interests of the publisher, and shall cover any potential costs.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.