Stigma as an Attribute of Oppression or an Agent of Change
The Novel Girl, Woman, Other by Bernardine Evaristo
The purpose of this paper is to describe the processes of stigmatization and oppression of women as presented by Bernardine Evaristo in her book Girl, Woman, Other. The book features twelve female characters who are very different from each other, but what they have in common is that they each, in their own way, face stigma, misunderstanding and social exclusion. The social construction of stigma causes various kinds of social inequalities of the stigmatized. Through the fictional narratives of the stigmatized and the reflection of their position in the novel, stigmatized women become the bearers of change and not merely the victims of oppression.
Boon, Sonja. 2013. “Vulnerability, Longing, and Stigma in Hélène Cixous’s The Day I Wasn’t There”. SubStance Vol. 42: 85 -104.
Bowleg, Lisa. 2012. “Once You’ve Blended the Cake, You Can’t Take the Parts Back to the Main Ingredients: Black Gay and Bisexual Men’s Descriptions and Experiences of Intersectionality”. Sex Roles Vol. 68: 754-767.
Cixous, Hélène, Keith Cohen, Paula Cohen. 1976. “The Laugh of the Medusa”. Signs Vol. 1, No. 4 (Summer): 875-893.
____. 1998. Stigmata. Abingdon, Milton Park: Routledge.
Cixous, Hélène and Susan Sellers. 2008. White Ink. Abingdon, Milton Park: Routledge.
Davis, Kathy. 2008. »Intersectionality as Buzzword: A Sociology of Science Perspective on What Makes a Feminist Theory Successful”. Feminist Theory 9: 67, http://fty.sagepub.com/content/9/1/67 (30.10.2020).
Evaristo, Bernardine. 2019. Girl, Women, Other. London: Hamish Hamilton.
Fanon, Frantz. 1952. Black Skin, White Masks. London: Pluto Press.
Frazer-Carroll, Micha. “Girl, Woman, Other by Bernardine Evaristo Review – Joy as Well as Struggle”, The Guardian, 8 May 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/may/08/girl-woman-other-by-bernardine-evaristo-review (30.10.2020).
Goffman, Erving. 1963. Stigma, Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Graham, Mekada & Jerome H. Schiele. 2010. “Equality-of-oppressions and anti-discriminatory Models in Social Work: Reflections from the USA and UK”. European Journal of Social Work Vol. 3/2: 231-244.
Howarth, Caroline. 2006. “Race as Stigma: Positioning the Stigmatized as Agents, not Objects”. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology 16 (6): 442-451.
Jones, Sian R. 2009. “Constructing Identities at the Intersections: An Autoethnographic Exploration of Multiple Dimensions of Identity”, Journal of College Student Development Vol. 50/3: 287-304.
Parent, Mike, Cirleen Deblaere and Bonnie Moradi. 2013. “Approaches to Research on Intersectionality: Perspectives on Gender, LGTB, and Racial/ethnic Identities”, Sex Roles Vol. 68: 639-645.
Syed, Moin. 2010. “Disciplinarity and Methodology in Intersectionality Theory and Research”. American Psychologist 65: 61–62.
Warner, R. Leah and Stephanie A. Shields. 2013. “The Intersections of Sexuality, Gender, and Race: Identity Research at the Crossroads”. Sex Roles Vol. 68: 803-810.
Watson, Toni. J. 2008. “Managing Identity: Identity Work, Personal Predicaments and Structural Circumstances” Organization Vol. 15/1: 121-143.
Woodward, Kathryn. 1997. Idenitity and Difference. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.
Young, Marion I. 1990. Justice and Politics of Difference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Copyright (c) 2020 Darja Zorc Maver
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors are confirming that they are the authors of the submitting article, which will be published (print and online) in journal Acta Neophilologica by Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, Aškerčeva 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia). Author’s name will be evident in the article in journal. All decisions regarding layout and distribution of the work are in hands of the publisher.
- Authors guarantee that the work is their own original creation and does not infringe any statutory or common-law copyright or any proprietary right of any third party. In case of claims by third parties, authors commit their self to defend the interests of the publisher, and shall cover any potential costs.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.